On the Monastic Archives of Kun-bde gling, Lhasa, Including a Preliminary Analytical

Historical Study of the Monastery Itself



Joachim G. Karsten1


0. Introduction

As is generally the case with many aspects of Tibetan Studies in the West, up to this day only very little was known about the monastic establishment of Kun-bde gling despite the fact that it has been known in the West for over a century (Nain Singh [fl. 1856-1875]: "Kontyaling" in 1866).2 It may be worthwhile to quote what little was known to two of the most eminent Tibetan scholars of the mid-20th century, Luciano Petech and Hugh Richardson:

... it formed the group of the four Royal Monasteries of Lhasa. ... Kun bde gling* was the seat of the rTa ts'ags (or rDa ts'ag) Qutuqtu, two of whom were regent of Tibet: the first one for the VIII and IX Dalai-Lamas from 1791 to 1819 [recte: 1811!], and the second for the XIII Dalai-Lama from 1875 to his death in 1886. ... Kun bde gling lies to the west of Lhasa outside the city walls, on the road leading to 'Bras spuns. ... I [i.e. H. Richardson] was told that Kun bde gling claims a connection with East Tibet, whence it is said its first incarnate bla ma came in the time of P'o lha nas (FERRARI 93 n. 66).
*[note: for technical reasons some diacritics have been changed (in this case n with dot on top has been changed to the more common Wylie-transliteration: ng). Changes are indicated by blue color.]

As indicated above, the monastery of Kun-bde gling was one of the four so-called "royal monasteries" (gling-bzhi)3, i.e. one of those monasteries in or near Lhasa which enjoyed particular patronage by the Ch'ing authorities (1636/1644-1911) and which provided the government of Tibet with regents during a Dalai Lama's minority from 1757 until 1895. These four monasteries were Kun-bde gling, bsTan-rgyas gling4, Tshe-mchog gling5 and mTsho-smon gling6; the former two were destroyed in the early 1960s and 1910s respectively, while the latter have survived the last decades to some extent. Kun-bde gling was rebuilt on a much smaller scale and at somewhat different location - to the west of the former location - in the 1980s (AA).

1. The Names of the Monastery

As is the case with many Buddhist monasteries of Tibet, A-mdo, Khams, as well as Manchuria and Mongolia also the monastery of Kun-bde gling is known under several different names.7

    1. Tibetan Names8

Tibetan texts generally mention the monastery as Kun-bde9 gling10 or often in an abbreviated form such as Kun-gling11. According to Tibetan texts of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries other spellings include Kun-'dul gling12, Kun-'dus gling13, Kun-'dun gling14 or Kun-dga' gling15; however, during my reading of Tibetan texts of the late 18th to early 20th-centuries I have not come across the latter spelling. Two contemporary texts, from around 1800, i.e. shortly after the foundation of Kun-bde gling, in the 1792s, mention the latter under the following names: dGa'-ldan brtan-bzhugs chos-'khor (gling)16 and (Bod-kyi lha-khang) brTan-bzhugs chos-'khor gling17 which latter name had been granted, in 1794, by the Eighth Dalai Lama18. Another name is Kun-bde chos-'khor gling19. A few documents20, the founders hagiography21, modern Tibetan works on history as well as the colophon to the Blue Annals22 dated 1792 (sic) our monastery is referred to as dBus gTsang Kun-bde gling, which is an abbreviation of dBus gTsang Kun-bde chos-'khor gling. This is an exact translation of its Chinese name (see below). Another name, probably identical to that of the printery (bla-brang lHun-grub bde-chen), is Kun-bde gling lHun-grub sde-chen.23 (see under 7.). Another name appears to have been bSod-nams kun-sdud gling.24

One may add that in the hagiography of the founder of the monastery it is referred to as "Tibetan Temple" (bod kyi lha khang),25 whereas the temple of Ge-sar above is referred to as "Temple of the Chinese God of War, Kuan Yün-ch[']ang".26 Note that the inscription dating from 1794 refers to our monastery as lha-khang.27 As far as I know Kun-bde gling housed up to 200 monks,28 which number indicates that it was a monastery. Whether Kun-bde gling was a lha-khang,29 bla-brang30 or a dgon-pa31, is still beyond our grasp; According to BY bla-brang and dgon-pa were rather independent units. I wonder whether Kun-bde gling bla-brang refers to the property of the rTa-tshag lineage whereas Kun-bde gling dgon-pa was the monastery attached to the former.

Note further that there are or were other monastic establishment called Kun-bde gling:

  1. Kun-bde gling alias Ta-lang tui in the north-eastern part of the former district of Zangs-ri ('Ol-dga') north of E. I am unable to reconstruct the Chinese transcription (perhaps something like *rTa-/*sTag-/*mDa'-/*Zla-*glang *stod).32
  2. Kun-tu bde-ba'i gling. Is it located at the foot of Mount T'ung-pao north of the Blue Lake. Its Chinese name is Pai-fo ssu, i.e. Temple of the White Buddha.33 It is a dependency of La-mo bDe-chen34 and appears to have been founded at an unknown date around 1578-1580 by La-mo I *mTsho-nyid rgya-mtsho (d. c. 1609), a follower of the Third Dalai Lama.35

There were also monastic establishment named Kun-bde gling in Mongolia:

  1. Kun-bde gling alias Hui-an ssu36, i.e. Monastery of Gracious Tranquillity, is or was located in or around Huhot (Köke Qota) in modern Inner Mongolia. It was founded in or shortly before 1773.37
  2. Kun-bde gling alias Kuang-an ssu38, i.e. Monastery of Vast Calmness, was founded at an unknown location in Tümed-Mongolia.39

1.2. Chinese Names

The only Chinese name of Kun-bde gling known to us is (Wei Tsang) Yung-an ssu, i.e. Monastery40 of Everlasting Peace41 (in dBus and gTsang).42 This name is said to have been granted, in either 179543 or 179644, by the Ch'ien-lung (1736-1795) or Chia-ch'ing (1796-1820) emperors45 in memory of the successful Tibeto-Nepalese war of 1792.46 According to a modern Tibetan work on the history of the monastery its Chinese name carved upon the votive tablet was "Wei Tsang Kung-te lin",47 which is impossible.48

Some kind of Sino-Tibetan name is Chi49-lung ssu,50 i.e. *rJe-drung dgon-pa (monastery of the rJe-drung (qutuqtu)), which latter name cannot be found in the Tibetan texts. According to a rather early German work "rJe-drung" was the name of a monastery in Mongolia (sic).51 The P'in-yin-transcription of this name ("Jilong") has created some confusion in the recent literature on Tibet where it is also employed to transcribe the town in Western Tibet, sKyid-(g)rong ("Kyirong").52 Note that Kun-bde gling is transcribed in modern Chinese works as Kung-te-lin.53

From the names discussed above it appears that both Tibetan and Chinese names reflect some influence exercised by the Ch'ing court in Peking.

2. Historical Sketch

As is well known in Sino-tibetological circles, the Kun-bde gling Monastery of Lhasa owns its existence to the outcome of the military conflict between Tibet, Nepal and China from 1788 until 1792.54 Several people were directly involved in the foundation of the monastery: The then regent of Tibet, rTa-tshag VIII Ye-shes blo-bzang bstan-pa'i mgon-po (1760-1811, q. v.), the Manchu military official, Fukangga (d. 1796)55, his colleague the Solon military official, Hailanca (d. 1793)56, the Mongol civil servant, Sung-yün (1752-1835)57, a certain Governor-general, "Rus"(>Chin. *Jui?), an unidentified Chinese Paymaster, "Lis san tha-ye"58, the representative of the Eighth Dalai Lama, mgron-gnyer sde-pa sngags-ram-pa sKal-bzang rnam-rgyal (?), a certain shod-drung sde-pa Nang-rag-pa, an equally unidentified las-bya phyag-nang (?), a certain Tshe-'phel, etc.59 It is recorded that 7,000 srang of silver and precious stones were collected for the building of a monastery. In the same manner the temples of Mañjushri and Kuan-ti were established.60 According to one modern text based on unknown source material rTa-tshag VIII had supplied about 9.300 srang.61

To be continued...

2. Foundation of the monastery

According to a stele and more recent Chinese texts62 the foundation dates back to 1794.63 However, a small number of texts suggest different years: Thus the hagiography of rTa-tshag VIII64 and a modern compilation on Tibetan history65 date the foundation two years earlier, i.e. 1792. To the best of my knowledge the first reference to Kun-bde gling in an almost contemporary Tibetan hagiography is one mentioned under the year of 179666 which year is also given as year of the foundation in a Chinese text written at the end of the Ch'ing dynasty.67 According to two rather recent Chinese works, in 1796, the monastery was granted a votive tablet inscribed with four Chinese characters: Wei Tsang yung-an ("Everlasting Peace to dBus and gTsang [=Tibet Proper]")68; thus the monastery must have already been founded by 1796. Probably at the same time the then Assistant Amban, Ho-ning (d. 1821)69, had a stele70 put up which appears to be identical with the bilingual stele seen, between 1936 and 1950, by Hugh Edward Richardson who, in 1974, published a transliteration and translation of the Tibetan text.71 According to a recent study Kun-bde gling was founded as late as 1804!72 I am, however, unable to trace the source of this last statement.

Our monastery is believed to be a "successor" to the much older monastery of Yangs-pa-can north-west of Lhasa and it is now known to have had rather close ties to (the monasteries of) lHo-rong, dPa'-shod, Ri-bo-che and rTa-tshag. It is, therefore, necessary to briefly identify these five places. As it is, some of the names refer to more than one location in Tibet.

Yangs-pa-can - or in short Yangs-can73 - is one of the "Four Northern Communities" (byang rigs sde bzhi: together with Nag-tshang, gNam-ru and Nag-chu) in the northern part of Tibet proper.74 Its centre is a monastery by the upper reaches of the lHo-rong chu in sNye-mo.75 This monastery, Thub-bstan Yangs-pa-can, was founded, in 1490, and became the main seat of the lineage of the Zhwa-dmar incarnations.76 Exactly 302 years later the monastery was destroyed.77 It appears to be identical to bDe-chen Yangs-pa-can which is said to have been founded by Zhwa-dmar IV Chos-kyi grags-pa ye-shes (1453-1524)78.79

Lho-rong is somewhat difficult to identify, as it is the name of two areas within two rather different regions of Tibet, one by the lHo-nang chu80 within the upper reaches of the sTod-lung chu81 and the other in the district of lHo-rdzong in Western Khams.82 Despite the close location of the lHo-nang chu to Yangs-pa-can the second lHo-rong has had some bearing on our monastery, as will be seen below.

dPa'-shod83 is now a county surrounded by the counties of Brag-g.yab, mDzo-sgang, lHo-rong, and Ri-bo-che. Its religious and cultural centre is gZhon-nu dPa'-shod dgon dGa'/dGe-ldan bsam-grub gling (Chin. T'ung-k'a ssu) which was founded, in 1473, by lHo-pa gNas-thang84 bla-ma rGyal-mtshan seng-ge. Before 1959, it housed over 400 monks85 and, around 1995, 350 monks and nuns (sic) were living there.86 Between 1736 and 1796 (according to Tshe-ring rgyal-po of TAL: 1792), it was granted three names and a trilingual (in Chinese, Tibetan and Mongol [ ? recte: Manchu?] ) votive tablet by the Ch'ien-lung emperor; its Tibetan inscription read "Legs-skyobs gling".87 It was also granted another votive tablet inscribed in Chinese, Tibetan and Mongol (? recte: Manchu?), the Tibetan text reading "chos brtson byang sems rnam par dag pa".88 For more details on this monastery see Appendix I.

Ri-bo-che is a county located among the counties of A-mdo, Chab-mdo, dPa'-shod, lHo-rong and sTeng-chen.89 Its religious centre is or was the monastery of (Mar-thang) Ri-bo-che which was founded, in 1276, by an unknown person and belonged to the sTag-lung School of Tibetan Buddhism.90 It may not be identical to Yang-dgon of Ri-bo-che.91

rTa-tshag92 (Lhasa-Dialect: IPA: *[t‚gdzŗ-])93 is a location in lHo-rong (rTa-tshag sgang) not far from an unidentified place called sKul-shod in the western part of Khams; it is apparently referred to as early as under the year of 1439.94 Its centre is or was an estate of a certain Ri-bo-che dpon-tshang (rTa-tshag) Tshe-dbang rgyal (-*po) (fl. 1446-1451)95 with a temple (lha-khang or gtsug-lag khang) known as Khya-thon lha-khang.96 The latter must be identical with the lha-khang of rTa-tshag in lHo[-rdzong].97


Location and Description of the Monastery of Kun-bde gling

2.1. Location

From a geographical point of view Kun-bde gling is located at the foot of98 the Bar-ma ri99 west of the old city of Lhasa, south of sKyid-tshal klu-sding100 and 'Ja'-mtshon chu-mig sPang-shong na-kha101, north of the gTsang-chu (also: sKyid-chu), east of Nor-bu gling-kha102, and north-east of Kun-bde gling-kha103. The three mountains of dMar-po ri, lCags-po ri and Bar-ma ri form a religious trinity, as they represent Avalokiteshvara, Vajrapa.ni and MañjushrÓ respectively and in a polito-religious sense they represent Tibet, Mongolia and China. After the defeat of the Gurkha troops, in 1792, the Ch'ing soldiers established a place of worshipping the Chinese God of War, Kuan-ti,104 as well as a place for the worship of Mañjushri and Rigs-gsum lha-khang, i.e. a temple in honour of Avalokiteshvara, Vajrapa.ni and MañjushrÓ. The Ch'ien-lung emperor (r. 1736-1795), the Eighth Dalai Lama and the Eighth rTa-tshag qutuqtu together decided to establish a monastery in memory of the victory over the Gurkhas which first was given the name of brTan-bzhugs chos-'khor gling (see above under 1.1.).

With its location at the foot of the Bar-ma ri the monastery is equally located below the so-called Ge-sar Temple.105 The statement that this temple is located within the monastic compound does not appear to be correct.106 It may be more appropriate to state that this temple belonged to the monastery.107

2.2. Description of the Monastic Compound

2.2.1. The Monastic Compound

The first known description of the monastery appears to be a list of edifices within the monastic compound mentioned in a text dated 1813, under the year of 1796, with reference to the completion of the monastery.108 According to this interesting reference the compound consisted of

  1. Bla-brang (Residence) known under the names bSod-nams kun-sdud gling109 or Kun-bde gling (gi) bla-brang110. This residence may or may not be identical with the rTa-tshag(s) pho-brang mentioned under the year of 1921.111
  2. 'Du-khang (ka-ba bcu-drug sgo-mtsho): This assembly hall must be identical with the four-storeyed building mentioned in a recent guidebook.112 It was founded in or shortly after 1792.113
  3. mGon-khang (ka-gnyis): Temple containing statues of Vajrabhairava, etc.,
  4. Grwa-shag : Monk's quarters,
  5. gTsang-khang (ka-bzhi): It was founded, in or shortly after 1792114, and contained statues of Tsong-kha-pa Blo-bzang grags-pa (1357-1419), Buddha Sh‚kyamuni, Amit‚yus, Bhaishajyaguru, Dhy‚nibuddha Vairocana, Ush.nishavijay‚, Sit‚tapatr‚ und Shy‚mat‚r‚. This may be identical with the nuilding containing the remains of the rTa-tshag qutuqtu.115 In about 1990, it was administered by eight monks and the rTa-tshag qutuqtu of today.116
  6. Phyag-mdzod (Treasury),
  7. Ra-ba sgo-'phig(s). (Court [ with roofed] gate [ in Chinese style?] ).,
  8. Rab-gsal (Gallery enclosing an inner courtyard?), and the
  9. Rung-khang (Coquina): Kitchen.

According to Western authors - including Indian authors in British service -, from the 1880s to the 1950s, the property of Kun-bde gling consisted of groves, parks, and a rockery with a temple in honour of Kuan-ti on top.117 The whole compound was to be entered through a large gate.118 The monastery served a residence of a regent of Tibet twice in its history: 1804-1811 and 1875-1886. In the 1960s, it was destroyed but partly rebuilt at a somewhat shifted location in the 1980s (AA).

Several photographs taken, before the 1960s, are known to me:

  1. Colour photograph taken, in 1950, by Heinrich Harrer and published in NORBU 1960 between pp. 184f.
  2. View of the monastery taken from the lCags-po ri; published in Bod lJongs Nang bsTan 1995/2, 6th plate.
  3. View from the roof of Kun-bde gling; colour photograph taken, in 1937, by Frederick Spencer Chapman; published in JONES 429. Black and white print of the same published in CHAPMAN 112f. "3rd" plate and RICHARDSON 1998 plate 28.

3. The Administration of Kun-bde gling

Like any other important monastery within the world of Tibetan Buddhism its successful survival depended on effective organization to make full use of its economic, human and religious resources. It is, therefore, called-for to cast a brief glance at various posts held by an unknown number of monks of the monastery.

However, one has to bear in mind that Kun-bde gling was not only a monastery but what is known in Tibetan as bla-brang. This term is difficult to explain.

According to an oral communication based on the study of local sources119 the administration and organization of eight high-ranking qutuqtu-incarnation lineages followed an identical sytem presumably devised by the Ch'ing institutions.120 Thus there were over 30 offices of altogether about 150 officials under the proprietor.

3.1. The Proprietors of the Monastery (dgon-bdag)121

From 1794122 until 1959 - and apparently from the 1990s onwards123 - Kun-bde gling was the property of its own incarnate lineage known as rTa-tshag124, rJe-drung125 or in full rTa-tshag rje-drung ho-thog-thu.126 The title of rje-drung was misunderstood by William Woodville Rockhill (1854-1914) who believed "chi-lön" to be a Chinese transcription of "*phyi-blon", i.e. "Prime Minister" (spyi-khyab mkhan-po [sic]), and reconstructs as "phyi-blon qutuqtu" which does not make much sense.127 Another incorrect reconstruction is "Taktra Jetsun" (i.e. rTa-tshag *rje-btsun).128 Now and then the texts mention the incarnate monk as Kun-bde gling sprul-sku129, Kun-gling ho-thog-thu130 and dPa'-shod or rTa-tshag rje-drung rin-po-che.131 Exceptionally also Ba-so rje-drung132 may be found; Ba-so itself being a place in Chu-shur which is located at the border of dBus and gTsang.133 This incarnation lineage held the same rank as the lineage of the Brag-g.yab che-tshang134 (BY), i.e. that of a qutuqtu nom-un qan ("Living Buddha"; Chin. hu-t'u-k'o-t'u *no-men han). The whole lineage which appears to be one of the many lineage's constructed posthumously135 goes as follows:136

  1. Ba-so137 Chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan (1402-1473) alias Pa-so Ch'ui-chi chia-le-ts'an138
  2. lHa-skyabs (d. at the age of 24; ca. 1474-ca. 1500139)140
  3. Gu-.na-shri alias Li-yul chos-rgyal (1509-1526)141
  4. Ba-so lHa-dbang chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan142 (1537-1605) from lHo-rong rdzong (s.o.) alias Pa-so La-wang ch'ui-chi chia-le-ts'an143
  5. Ba-so Ngag-dbang chos-kyi dbang-phyug (1606-1652) alias L[recte: N!]a-wang ch'ui-chi wang-ch'u-k'o144
  6. rTa-tshag (I) Ngag-dbang dkon-mchog nyi-ma (1653-1707) alias Chi-lung hu-t'u-k'o-t'u A-wang kung-ch'ü yi-ma145
  7. rTa-tshag (II) Blo-bzang dpal-ldan (bstan-pa'i)146 rgyal-mtshan alias Luo-pu-sang pan-tien chien-ts'an alias Ji-lung shan-i wei-ch'üan tsu-shih147 (d. in Peking at the age of 50; ca. 1708/9-1758/9; contemporary of the Seventh Dalai Lama, 1708-1757) from Ri-bo-che148; for a "portrait" of his see the Three Hundred Icons 18a.149
  8. rTa-tshag (III) Ba-so rje-drung qutuqtu Ye-shes blo-bzang bstan-pa'i mgon-po alias Yi-hsi luo-sang tan-pei kung-pu (1760-1811): Founder of Kun-bde gling
  9. rTa-tshag (IV) Ngag-dbang blo-bzang bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan alias Luo-pu-sang tan-pei chien-ts'an (1811-1848)
  10. rTa-tshag (V) Ngag-dbang dpal-ldan chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan alias A-wang pan-tien ch'u-chi chien-ts'an (1850/1854-1886)
  11. rTa-tshag (VI) Ngag-dbang thub-ldan skal-bzang sgron-me (1888-1918)
  12. rTa-tshag (VII) Blo-bzang thub-bstan 'jigs-med rgyal-mtshan (1924-1956)

13.a rTa-tshag (VIII) bsTan-'dzin chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan (1958?-).
13.b rTa-tshag (VIII) Blo-bzang ye-shes.

As two members of this lineage have served as regents of Tibet (1789-1790, 1791-1811, 1875-1886),150 it may not be out of place to cast a glance at the lives of some of the members of this important lineage.

rTa-tshag VIII151 Ye-shes blo-bzang bstan-pa'i mgon-po152 (3 III 1760 - 30 XII [=1811sic!]) was born in Mal-jo153 in sPo-bo District as the son of a certain rGya-ra Dar-lu tshe-ring and his wife, Zla-ba bu-khrid. He was a nephew on the paternal side of Ngag-dbang nor-bu (q.v.). In 1764, at the age of five dgung-lo, the boy entered the monastery of dPa'-shod, dGe-ldan bsam-'grub gling,154 where a year later he was enthroned and given a seal, diploma155 and a tiara. From 1767 on, he studied under mkhan-chen dza-sag dPal-ldan grags-pa156 who also accepted the dge-bsnyen-vows. In 1771, the boy went to study at the monastery of sKu-'bum and a year later he proceeded to Dolug an Nag ur, Jehol in Manchuria. There he lived for a decade studying under important teachers such as lCang-skya II Rol-pa'i rdo-rje (1717-1786) who accepted his dge-tshul-vows and gave him the name of Ye-shes bstan pa'i mgon-po. As early as 1772, he had been received in an audience by the Ch'ien-lung emperor who granted presents such as the latter's own coral rosary. The emperor treated rTa-tshag as his tham-ka bla-ma (=tamag a blam-a) and gave him thirteen servants and an allowance of a proper official. Moreover, the emperor honoured the boy by granting the title of a dza-sag bla-ma (=jasag blam-a). Due to the death of dPal-ldan grags-pa (q. v.) he continued his studies under the then tutor to the Third Jibcündamba Ye-shes bstan-pa'i nyi-ma (1758-1773)157 and abbot of the bKra-shis lhun-po-Monastery of Jehol, Shar-rtse mkhan-po nom-un qan Blo-bzang 'jam-dpal (), from 1774 on.158 In 1780, during the Third Pa.n-chen's visit to Jehol, the Ch'ien-lung emperor presented a dragon robe,159 a rather high honour for a hitherto politically insignificant person.160 From 1781 until 1782, rTa-tshag returned to Lhasa via dPa'-shod, lHo-rdzong and Sho-pa mdo. Back there he joined the sGo-mang Faculty of the monastery of 'Bras-spungs and pursued his studies under sGo-mang mkhan-po sKal-bzang dngos-grub161 for the next eight years. Among his teachers were the Eigth Dalai Lama, the Second 'Jam-dbyangs bzhad-pa II dKon-mchog 'jigs-med dbang-po (1728-1791)162, Klong-rdol Ngag-dbang blo-bzang (1719-1795)163, whose hagiography (KDNT) was later written by rTa-tshag, and - apparently only after 1782 - lCang-skya II Rol-pa'i rdo-rje (1717-1786)164. In 1782, rTa-tshag was ordained by the Eigth Dalai Lama and a year later he was admitted into the monastic order. Four years later he was among those who congratulated the emperor on his birthday.165 In 1788, the emperor granted the title of a tham-ka bla-ma of Dolug an Nag ur (Dolon-nor) and summoned him to Peking. In the spring of 1789, on his way to China, rTa-tshag who had reached 'Bri-chu kha166 received the imperial through the then Grand Minister Resident of Ch'ing-hai, Shing (), order to return to Lhasa and take over the regentship.167 The emperor also granted the titles of a dza-sag and of a biligtü nom-un qan.168 Thus, from 26th May 1789 to 28th September 1790, he held his first spell as regent.169 During his office he resided at the lHag-sgo khang-gsar.170 Also in 1791, rTa-tshag travelled, again, to China; this time he took the southern route via Chab-mdo, lCags-zam kha171 and Al-thang ol-bo (TTKP 13: Al-thang o-bog; <Mo. Altan obo?)172 where, again, he was ordered by the emperor through the then Grand Minister Resident of Ch'ing-hai, Zhu'u (), to return to Lhasa to take up regentship of Tibet. This second spell as regent lasted from 1791 until 1811.173 A year later, in 1792174, the emperor granted the title of a samadhi bag si (Chin. hui-t'ung ch'an-shih (Tib. Transcription: phu-thung gzhan-zi), Tib. ye-shes yongs-rdzogs bsam-gtan mkhan-po) and a silver seal.175 In 1799, he in the company of Cabinet Minister lHa-sdings Don-grub tshe-dbang (fl. 1775-1808)176 travelled to bKra-shis lhun-po to visit the Fourth Pa.n-chen.177 In 1804, rTa-tshag received diploma and seal of a regent.178 That year he also had a prayer for the rebirth of the Eighth Dalai Lama printed and distributed all over Tibet.179 Four years later he was in charge of the selection of the new Ninth Dalai Lama, Lung-rtogs rgya-mtsho (1806-1815).180 To this day hardly anything is known about his long reign as regent. According to some Tibetan texts he died "peacefully"181 at his monastery (Kun-bde gling) whereas according to an eyewitness account the regent committed suicide by having bitten off his tongue on the 30th day of the 12th month, i.e. 1811.182 It is interesting to note that his death does not appear to be mentioned in the Veritable Records (shih-lu) of the Chia-ch'ing emperor.183 The Amban Ho-lin (1753-1796)184 described him as a man of upright character, calm countenance and an unerring sense of justice. He was, moreover, obedient in carrying out his duties in Tibet185 or, in other words, pro-Ch'ing. He left an ?uvre of over ninety texts.186 His autobiography by rGyal-dbang sprul-sku Blo-bzang 'phrin-las rnam-rgyal was published in excerpts in TT8.187

IX. rTa-tshag Ngag-dbang blo-bzang bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan, originally named lHa-rgyal, (11th month; December 1811 / January 1812 - 1848 / 11 II 1854) was born northeast of dPa'-shod (in rNgas[?], Khams) as the son of a certain mDa'-dpon tshang sGrol-ma-skyabs188 and the latter's wife, bSam-(')grub mtsho-mo. In the summer of 1813, he was decided to be the incarnation of the regent, rTa-tshag VIII, by casting lots, given the name of Ngag-dbang blo-bzang bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan by the Ninth Dalai Lama and installed at the bla-brang dGa'-ldan rnam-rgyal.189 In autumn of the same year the boy was brought to sGrol-ma lha-khang in Tsha-sgang190 where he stayed for seven months. In spring 1814, he was "collected" by dza-sag Ngag-dbang tshul-khrims and others and enthroned at the monastery of dPa'-shod (?) by the Ninth Dalai Lama (?).191 In the summer of 1817, the boy arrived in Lhasa where he was received at Potala Palace by the then regent, De-mo II. Blo-bzang thub-bstan 'jigs-med rgya-mtsho (1778-1819)192. Having settled down in Lhasa rTa-tshag commenced his studies at the bKra-shis sgo-mang Faculty of 'Bras-spungs;193 among his teachers must be mentioned the Tenth Dalai Lama - the Ninth had died on 26th March 1815 - and the Fourth Pa.n-chen. In the 1820s, he was among those high-ranking incarnate monks who were regularily invited by the Dalai Lama.194 According to a Chinese document dated 16th December 1829 the boy was honoured with imperial presents.195 In 1832, he returned to dPa'-shod where he stayed for five years. Nothing much is known about the following years until, in 1840 or on 29 VI 1844,196 he became the tutor of the Eleventh Dalai Lama. That year he authored several bca'-yig for the monasteries of sTag-lung brag Mang-thos bsam-gtan gling, rTa-tshag lHun-'grub bde-chen gling, [dPa'-shod?] dGa'-ldan bsam-'grub gling, and Ya-rgyal dga'-ldan bstan-rgyas gling of bKra-shis chos-gling in Oyirad-Mongolia. He also authored a monastic chronicle and description of Bya-phud mDo-sngags dar-rgyas gling.197 At an unknown date before 1843198 he was granted the title of a t'ung-shan qutuqtu. According to a Chinese text from around 1910 he died at the age of 43 sui,199 i.e. in about 1853200.201

X. rTa-tshag Ngag-dbang dpal-ldan202 chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan203, Kun-gling rgyal-thog gnyis-pa="Kundeling II"204, originally Nor-bu don-grub, (1850205/1854206-1886207) was born in bKra-shis rtse in sNe-gdong, Yar-lung,208 as the son of the then local ruler of Yar-lung, sde-pa Tshe-ring dar-rgyas209, and his spouse, sNang-dkar rtse210 rKyang-mo A-lags. In 1853/1857, he entered the Kun-bde gling Monastery and began his studies under Rwa-sgreng IV. Ngag-dbang ye-shes tshul-khrims (1816-1863)211. For the next couple of years he also studied under his tutor, the former abbot of rGyud-stod, Ngag-dbang nor-bu,212 at the sGo-mang Faculty of the monastery of 'Bras-spungs. In 1868/1872, he travelled through Southern Tibet and a year after he took the bsnyen-rdzogs-vows from rGyal-sras VI. (oder VII.?) Ngag-dbang thogs-med bstan-'dzin rgya-mtsho213 and continued his studies under Brag-ri Blo-bzang chos-'byor ()214 and Phur-lcog Byams-pa rgya-mtsho (1825-1901)215. In 1871, he graduated as lha-rams-pa. Six years later, in 1877, the young lad was granted tht title of t'ung-shan (ch'an-shih). In 1879,216 being in charge of the Shangshang,217 he was appointed tutor of the Twelfth Dalai Lama218 who, in 1882, gave him dge-slong-vows.219 He was nominated regent around 25th April 1875 but the imperial approval was given as late as on 8th November 1875220 and the official seal was received two years after. rTa-tshag died on 11th May or 9th June (8th day of 4th month) 1886. According to a Chinese text dating from c. 1910 he had died much earlier, i.e. in 1881, at a place in Lhasa known as Shar-rgyud; this piece of information is incorrect, as we know that Sarat Chandra Das (1849-1917) had visited rTa-tshag as late as June 1882.221

rTa-tshag XI Ngag-dbang thub-ldan skal-bzang sgron-me (1888[25th day of 1st month]-1918)222 (Plate) was born as the son of the shod-drung, lCags-ri-shar/lCags-shar-ba Tshe-dbang g.yul-rgyal, and the latter's spouse, Zla-ba bu-khrid in Tshal (Gung-thang).223 Around 1890, the child was decided to be the incarnation by casting lots and, in 1892,224 he was granted title and silver seal of a sama-ti pakshi alias hu-thung zhan-ze (<hui-t'ung ch'an-shih).225 In 1900, he lived at his monastery of Kun-bde gling.226 He died at an unknown date in the early 1920s.227

rTa-tshag XII Blo-bzang thub-bstan 'jigs-med rgyal-mtshan228 alias Kun-bde gling rin-po-che (1924229-1956230) (Plate) was born in *Shas kha-ru, Zangs-ri, as the son of a certain Blo-bzang rgya-mtsho and his wife, rDo-rje sgrol-ma. At the age of three he is said to have left his footprint on a rock. He gave his gtsug-phud-vows to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and began to study under Tutor Thub-bstan dge-legs rab-rgyas. Nothing much is known about his childhood. In 1937, he was studying at one of the famous monastic universities near Lhasa, either at the monastery of 'Bras-spungs,231 dGa'-ldan232 or Se-ra.233 That same year he was visited for the first time in Tibetan history by a British official, Hugh Edward Richardson (b. 1905) in connection with a ceremony led by the than gNas-chung oracle, Blo-bzang rnam-rgyal (c. 1895-1945).234

-1945)235: He is said to have finished his studies by 1944.236 In 1954, he was among those who accompanied the Dalai Lama on his trip to Peking. Two years or four (BY: 1958!) later he died in Calcutta. He had been of a rather large, majestic and quiet figure (BY).

rTa-tshag XIII bsTan-'dzin chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan (b. 1958). Nothing is known about him but for the fact that, in 1959, he fled to India (BY).237

Recently a "parallel" incarnation is referred to: Blo-bzang ye-shes. However, nothing else is known about him to us in the West.

As we have seen two members of the lineage were regents of Tibet and thus helped shape the fate of Tibet from 1790 to 1886. Not much is known about their activities and duties. The following paragraphs may illustrate some aspects of their office.

  • "As to monies necessary for governmental expenses to be withdrawn from the Chief Treasury, the Amban will examine, in conjunction with the" rje-drung qutuqtu, "into the nature of the expenses and the sources of revenue. Any malversation must be at once reported by the" rje-drung qutuqtu "to the Amban, .."238
  • "the Living Buddhas of the major monasteries shall be appointed jointly by the Dalai Lama, the Resident Official and the Kyirong Hutuktu, .."239

Unlike the bla-brang of Tshe-smon gling which, in 1844 - during the regentship of its proprietor -, Tshe-smon gling Ngag-dbang 'jam-dpal tshul-khrims (1791-1854)240, had an office in Lhasa known as Tshe-gling do-dam las-khungs,241 Kun-bde gling does not appear to have had a similar office (*Kun-gling do-dam las-khungs).

As far as can be ascertained there were several officials subordinate to the proprietor, such as a phyag-mdzod, who at times held the title of a tà bla-ma,242 a gsol-dpon, mgron-gnyer, gnyer-pa, gzims-'gag, slob-dpon, dbu-mdzad, bla-gsar-pa, etc.

3.2. The Kun-bde gling dza-sag243 alias dPa'-shod dza-sag (M[onk?]9; BY)

The monastery and its proprietor were represented by an official known as Kun-bde gling dza-sag or in short Kun-gling dza-sag,244 i.e. the dza-sag (<mong. jasag)245 of Kun-bde gling. This official also bore the title of a spyi-mkhab dar-han246 (BY) and used to be a monk official of the Tibetan government invested or confirmed by the emperor. According to one informant the Kun-bde gling dza-sag stood above the dPa'-shod dza-sag; it appears that very often the Kun-bde gling dza-sag was a former dPa'-shod dza-sag (BY). The dza-sag had eight junior monk government officials (rtse-drung gzhon-pa) working under him.247 I wonder whether the eight monks administering Kun-bde gling at the present are successors of the eight junior monk officials.248

3.3. *Kun-bde gling (tà bla-ma) phyag-mdzod249/mdzod-chen ("Treasurer"), *spyi-mdzod (?)250 (M)

This office was rather likely an adoption of/adaption to the same office from the monastery of dPa'-shod.

  • 1773: Ngag-dbang dar-rgyas251 was promoted to the rank of a dza-sag bla-ma of rTa-tshag VIII, in 1773, before the foundation of Kun-bde gling!252 He died in 1784.253
  • 1789: tà bla-ma Blo-bzang rgyal-mtshan before the foundation Kun-bde gling (sic!)254
  • 1796: phyag-mdzod chen-mo bsTan-'dzin rgya-mtsho from dPa'-shod, ja-phu tà bla-ma.255 At an unknown date later he was given the title of a tà bla-ma256. In 1798, he was promoted dza-sag bla-ma; he must be identical with dza-sag rab-'byams257 bsTan-'dzin rgya-mtsho who was still in office during the appointment, in 1801, of rTa-tshag VIII as regent of Tibet.258 He held this office until 1808259 or longer. He was a brother of mdzod-pa las-thog-pa Ye-shes rab-brtan who were both known as the Nor-'dzom Brothers who, between 1805 and 1810, financed the printing of the Collected Works of Klong-rdol bla-ma Ngag-dbang blo-bzang (1719-1795). I am unable to say whether bsTan-'dzin rgya-mtsho is identical with the dPa'-shod dza-sag zur-pa of 1809.260
  • 1808-: gzims-'gag Ngag-dbang tshul-khrims (d. 1815).261
  • -1816: mdzod-pa las-thog-pa Ye-shes rab-brtan; brother of bsTan-'dzin rgya-mtsho.262
  • 1880: dPal-ldan shes-rab.263

3.4. mGron-gnyer chen-mo (M)

This monk held the post of a chancellor (in short: mgron-chen) within the chancellery (yig-tshang) of the second rank (BY).

3.5. Drung-yig chen-mo (M)

This second rank official held the post of a Secretary-general working at the chancellery (yig-tshang) (BY).

3.6. gSol-dpon (Truchseß/Sénéchal/Dapifer; M)

Office in charge of beverage (BY); the bearer was appointed by the Amban.

  • -1789!: Blo-bzang dpal-ldan.264
  • 1864-: bla-gsar-pa bSam-grub.265

3.7. gZims-dpon (M) *Chamberlain

This third-rank monk official was in charge of the dressing and bedding of the rTa-tshag qutuqtu (BY).

3.8. mChod-dpon (M) Sacristan, verger

One third-rank official in charge of the sacrificial utensils of the qutuqtu (BY).

3.9. lDe'u-'chang (Keeper of the Keys; M/L)

Five third-rank officials - laymen as well as monks - employed at the chancellery, the treasury and the storage (BY).

3.10. Chibs-dpon (L)

One equerry holding the third rank (BY).

3.11. mGron-gnyer las-byed ("Receptionist", *Sub-Chancellor, M)

Two assistants to the mgron-gnyer chen-mo fourth-rank (BY).

  • 1789!: Sang266 bla-ma.267

3.12. gZims-'gag (Bodyguard; Bouncer?) (M)

Two bodyguards holding the fourth rank (BY).

-1808: gzims-'gag Ngag-dbang tshul-khrims.268

3.13. Drung-yig (M)

Ten fourth rank secretaries employed by the chancellery, the treasury and the storage (BY). 

3.14. gNyer-pa (Custodian)

The four holders of this office of a custodian belonged to the fourth rank and had several servants working under them (BY).269

  • 1789 (sic!): Tshe-brtan phun-tshogs from Sho-pa mdo.270
  • sKar-ma.271
  • 1809: A-mchod.272

3.15. (')Byam(s)-dpon (L)

Sedain-chair Master, fourth rank (BY).

3.16. gZims-g.yog (M)

Fourth-rank assistant to the gzims-dpon (BY).

3.17. Ma-chen chen-mo (M)

One fourth-rank kitchen supervisor; assistant to the gsol-dpon, supervisor of the cooks, "waiter" (BY).

3.18. Drung-dkyus (M)

Ten fifth-rank scribes employed by the chancellery, the treasury and the storage (BY).

3.19. Ji-sang/Ja'i-sang (L)273

Ten assistants to the gnyer-pa holding the fifth rank (BY).

3.20. gZims-khang sde-pa (M)

Supervisor of the nang-bzan in charge of the cleaning of the sacrificial utensils and the altars as well as the preparation of sacrifices held within the qutuqtu's private chamber (BY).

3.21. gSol-thab (M)

Eight cooks holding the sixth rank (BY).

3.22. gDan-gnyer (M)

Two sixth-rank officials in charge of throne, tents and cushions (BY).

3.23. Phyag-nang (L)

Eight sixth-rank messengers employed by the storage (BY).

3.24. gZhung-nang (L)

Eight six-rank messengers employed by the treasury (BY).

3.25. mKhan-po alias sbya-yer mkhan-po (M)

Unidentified important office of an imperial messenger.274

n.d.: Ngag-dbang bstan-'dzin.275

1809: NN.276

1894: ['Jam-dbyangs 'od-zer (fl. 1892-1894) sba-yer mkhan-po mgron-gnyer.277]

3.26. Nang-so (L)

Unidentified important office of an imperial messenger.278

1882: Blo-bzang dar-rgyas.279

The duty of the officials listed under 3.25 and 3.26 during those years when the proprietor was regent of Tibet was to travel to Peking every five years280 and ensure a harmonious relationship between Kun-bde gling and the imperial court. Now, as only two of the proprietors were regnts, we may assume that the Kun-bde gling bla-brang mkhan-chen and the Kun-bde gling bla-brang nang-so travelled to Tibet during two periods, visually from 26 May 1789 to 28 September 1790, 7 June 1791 to January 1811, and from 8 November 1875 to 11 May (or 9 June) 1886. Therefore the first mission to Peking may have been undertaken in the following years:

1789, 1795, 1800, 1805, 1810, 1876, 1881, 1886.

However, we do know of other mkhan-po and nang-so who travelled between Kun-bde gling and Peking.

3.27. Gar-dpon (L)

Two six-rank dancing teachers (BY).

3.28. Gar-pa (L)

Sixteen sixth-rank dancers (BY).

3.29. Slob-dpon281 (Instructor)

  • Blo-bzang bstan-'dzin, was in retirement by 1854.282

3.30. dBu-mdzad (Precentor)

  • rGyal-mtshan dpal-ldan, was in retirement by 1854.283

3.31. Kun-gling mchod-gzhis (Estates)

The administration and any other aspects of monastic life depended on a sound economy. Given the size and scope of the monastery and the resident population of monks, it depended on sound economic management and sufficient revenues to sustain its place in Inner- and Sino-Tibetan politics. Important economic aspects were the monastic estates (mchod-gzhis)284 scattered all over Central and Eastern Tibet. There were, apparently, three ways for a monastery to accumulate land. First there were the grants made by the Ch'ing emperors in an assertion of their claims to authority over the lands and people of Tibet. Second there were lands accumulated throught donations made by the local nobles of Tibet. Those donations were a parallel to the Ch'ing imperial donations. Like the latter, they indicated the significance ascribed to the monastery by the competing temporal powers in Sino-Tibetan politics. The third source of lands was those bought from the local peasantry.285

In 1830 - 35 odd years after its foundation -, the monastery of Kun-bde gling owned most of the following estates and landed property:


  1. Bye-lung lho-pa, mentioned under the year of 1830.286
  2. lHa-yul, mentioned under the years of 1817287 and 1830.288
  3. gNyan-pa, mentioned under the year of 1830.289
  4. Tsher-thang-pa, mentioned under the year of 1830.290


  1. dPa'-shod, village presumably belonging to the estate of Kun-bde gling.291 


  1. bDe-skyid gling-kha: Park with residence mentioned for the first time under the year of 1848292; "Ambassadorial seat" of the British and later Indian Mission 1904 and 1937-1959.293
  2. Kun-bde gling gling-kha: Park mentioned for the first time under the year of 1920.294
  3. *Kun-bde gling spro-khang: "Holiday home" in Kun-bde gling gling-kha, south of Kun-bde gling; mentioned for the first time under the year of 1920.295
  4. sKye-yag gling-kha: Park in Lhasa.296
  5. lTag-sgo297 khang-gsar (*pho-brang): Residence of rTa-tshag VIII. from 1789-1790.298
  6. Ngo-gzhis of a certain thung [-si?299], Tshe-brtan dbang-grags (fl. 1830), at an unknown location within the valley of Lhasa.300
  7. 'Or-stod-pa, serves (?) from an unidentified location in the valley of Lhasa.301
  8. Tsha-gur/Tshag-gur/Tshag-sgur/Tshags-sgur: Estate at unknown location in sNe'u,302 presumably somewhere west of Lhasa.303 In 1894, the steward (gzhis-sdod) was bSam-gtan tshe-ring.304


  1. Yangs-pa-can: The landed property was transferred, in 1794, to Kun-bde gling and put under the control of the Paymaster under whom came the gNya'-mo-ba (as of 1830).305 In 1847, the Tibetan government dispatched dPal-lhun bka'-blon (fl. 1844-1865)306 and dBus mda'-dpon lHa-sdings307 to train the troops (dmag-sbyong spyi-khyab) stationed at Yangs-pa-can.308


  1. Kun-bde gling mi-ser shog: 20 households in the possession of the rTa-tshag qutuqtu, probably from the 1790s on; no. 3 of the sger-pa shog-brgyad (1. rDo-ring, 2. bsTan-rgyas gling; 4. Tshe-smon gling, 5. Se-ra Byes, 6. bTsag-ser khang, 7. Hor-khang, 8. O-thog309).310
  2. Khral-pa-tax in butter from after 1795 to shortly after 1953.311


  1. Tshag-(s)gur.312


  1. sKyer-po (gong), mentioned under the years of 1817314 and 1830315.
  2. sKyer-po ('og) mentioned under the years of 1817316 and 1830317.


  1. Unknown number of tenants from an equally unknown number of villages. One of the villages was Glud-'gong sgang alias Klu-gong sgang318 which name must have derived from the fact that one of its male inhabitants used to be the scapegoat (glud'-gong) on the 29th day of the 2nd month - as of 1937 to 1950.319


  1. "Shari" (BY: *Shar-ri?) rdzong in dPa'-shod: In 1935, it was the private estate of rTa-tshag "XIII" (recte: XII). All taxes were paid to rTa-tshag in Kun-bde gling mostly in naturals such as paper.320


  1. Grazing land in Phan-phyi lho.321


  1. Tshang-khul in Yul-rong.322


  1. sMon-grong (-ba), mentioned under the year of 1830.323
  2. U-rgyan, mentioned under the year of 1830 mentioned under the year of 1830.324


1. lCang-sto, mentioned under the year of 1853.325

TSHAL-BDE in sTod-lung:

  1. dPa'-bo in Bang.326
  2. Zhi-ba originally belonged to mTshur-phu.327
  3. 'On-grong; mentioned under the years of 1817328 and 1946, when it was a le-lag (dependency) of Grong-gsar [in sTod-lung?].329
  4. lHa-pa (sgang?): mentioned under the year of 1946.330
  5. Landed property of x Gram-lcang331; apparently identical with lCang-gsar in Gram.332

Some of the estates can not be located:

  1. Ba-glang nub333
  2. Ba-glang shar334
  3. Bya-yul335
  4. lCang-'khod336
  5. bDe-chen337
  6. rGyal(-gsab) sgang338
  7. rGyar-stod339
  8. Gye340
  9. lHa-ru341
  10. lKog-grong342
  11. ? bKra-shis ljongs343
  12. sKyar-po344
  13. sMon-'gro345
  14. Sa-mtshams346

In 1882, rTa-tshag rin-po-che of Kun-bde gling is reported to have owned over 3,000 mi-ser.347

From the important study on the monastery of bKra-shis bsam-gtan gling in sKyid-grong by Professor Schuh it is known that the two monasteries maintained some uncertain contacts.348 Something similar can be said of the following monasteries:

  1. bsTan-bsrung gling ("bsTan-pa bsrung-ba'i gling")349
  2. Dag-par bcos-pa'i gling350
  3. Kun-rdzob bcos-pa'i gling351
  4. sNang-ba dag-pa'i gling352
  5. bsGo-bar mjug-pa'i gling353
  6. bsGo-ba gtso-byed gling354.

To the following monasteries Kun-bde gling had similarly unspecified contacts; some of the places appear to have been dependencies.

  1. Bya-phud (dGe-ldan) mDo-sngags dar-rgyas gling,355
  2. Bye-khyer dGa'-ldan phan-bde legs-bshad gling,356
  3. lCags-zam Thub-bstan gling,357
  4. dGa'-ldan bkra-shis mchog-gling,358
  5. dGe-ldan lugs-bzang rnam-par rgyal-ba'i sde,359
  6. dGe-ldan thub-bstan dar-rgyas gling,360
  7. bKra-shis chos-'khor gling,361
  8. dPa'-shod 'Gro-phan dar-rgyas gling,362
  9. dPa'-shod dGa'-ldan bsam-grub gling,363
  10. Ri-phug of Zhwa-lu,364
  11. Rwa-'bur Thub-bstan dar-rgyas gling,365 and
  12. rTa-tshag lHun-grub bde-chen366: This may well be identical to the printery of Kun-bde gling for which see Appendix 1.


Appendix I: The Printery


The monastery of Kun-bde gling is mainly known among Western Tibetologists for the fact that it housed the printing blocks for the religio-historical work known as The Blue Annals (Deb-ther sngon-po from 1478).367 Apart from that important edition the printery called bla-brang lHun-grub bde-chen368 produced the following works. The year of the foundation of the printery is not known to me.

  1. By 1808, the monastery had produced a complete set of the bKa'-'gyur which was consecrated in the first month of 1809.369 This copy appears to be unkown in the West (HE).
  2. Collected Works of Klong-rdol Ngag-dbang blo-bzang (1719-1795): 2 vols. à 764 folio370
  3. The Blue Annals (Deb ther sngon po): 1 vol. à 485 folio with colophone by rTa-tshag VIII (before 1811).371
  4. Collected Works of rTa-tshag VIII: 2 vols. à 895 folio372
  5. Hagiography of rTa-tshag VIII: 1 vol. à 363 folio373
  6. Hagiography of rTa-tshag IX: 248 folio374
  7. Collected Works of rTa-tshag X: 236 folio.375
  8. Hagiography of rTa-tshag X: 60 folio376
  9. Hagiography of rTa-tshag XI: 86 folio377
  10. dGag lan378 of sGis-st[e]ng Blo-bzang dpal-ldan (1881-1944)379: 111 folio380
  11. lHa sku'i cha tshad dang bzo rigs bstan bcos: 42 folio381
  12. Lam rim 'khrid phan bde'i sgo 'byed: 26 folio382
  13. Thugs rje chen po'i dkyil cho ga: 13 folio383
  14. sKu brnyan gyi dkar chag: 17 folio384
  15. Pa.n-chen III (1738-1780): Shambhala'i smon lam: 3 folio385
  16. Blo-bzang chos-'byor: sPyan 'dren khrus gsol phyag mchod kyi rim pa:386
  17. Dalai Lama II dGe-'dun rgya-mtsho (1475-1542): gNas brtan phyag mchod:387 


Only one manuscript is known to me.

Collected Works of sTag-phu Gar-dbang chos-kyi dbang-phyug388 (18th ct.)389


Appendix II

Who's Who in Kun-bde gling, dPa'-shod, Ri-bo-che, and Yangs-pa-can (1470s to 1950s)

Blo-bzang bshad-sgrub (Chin. "Luo-sang xieh-chu"; fl. -1905): Dza-sag of Kun-bde gling in 1875390 and 1905.391

Blo-bzang bstan-'dzin: Slob-zur of Kun-bde gling, in c. 1854, when he made a donation to the monastery of bSam-yas.392

Blo-bzang dpal-ldan: [Kun-bde gling] gsol-dpon in 1798.393 394

Blo-bzang 'phrin-las (fl. 1690s): 24th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.395

Blo-bzang tshe-dbang: Appointed dza-sag bla-ma and sku-bcar mkhan-che in 1875 (?).396 Promoted dza-sag dar-han in 1883.397

Blo-gros bsod-nams (fl. 1530s): 8th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.398

dGe-'dun tshul-khrims (fl. 1600): 15th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.399

dGe-legs rgyal-mtshan (fl. 1807): gSol-dpon zur-pa of the Potala. In 1807, he had sponsored the printing of a set of sman-bla mdo-chog (?).400

rGyal-mtshan dpal-ldan: dBu-mdzad zur-pa in c. 1854 when he made a donation to the monastery of bSam-yas.401

'Jam-dbyangs legs-pa (fl. 1540s): 9th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.3402

'Jam-dbyangs 'od-zer(fl. 1892-1894): 1892, gnyer-pa of Kun-bde gling; 1893, mgron-gnyer of Kun-bde gling; 1894, mentioned as sba-yer mkhan-po mgron-gnyer, i.e. the official in charge of birthday congatulations to the emperor.403

dKon-cog 'byung-gnas (fl. 1510s): 6th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.404

dKon-cog dpal-'byor (fl. 1610s): 16th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.405

dKon-mchog: See under dKon-cog.

bKra-shis rgya-mtsho (fl. 1650s): 20th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.406

bKra-shis dpal-ldan (fl. 1470s?): 1st Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.407

Kun-dga' bsod-nams (fl. 1630s): 18th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.408

La-kha-ba Shes-rab rgyal-mtshan (fl. 1680s): 23rd Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.409

Nam-mkha' bzang-po (fl. 1560s): 11th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.410

Ngag-dbang bstan-'dzin: sBa-yer mkhan-po.411

Ngag-dbang nor-bu (d. 1767), dza-sag bla-ma of dPa'-shod, was a younger brother of rTa-tshag VII.42

Ngag-dbang nor-bu was appointed dza-sag bla-ma, in or shortly after 1866.413

Ngag-dbang tshul-khrims (d. 1815) [dPa'-shod dza-sag?] until 1815.414

'Od-zer rgyal-mtshan (b. c. 1910s?) was dza-sag of Kun-bde gling from 1954 to 1959;415 in 1951, he attended the congress at Chab-mdo. After his flight to India he was bka'-blon (Minister of Religious and Educational Affairs) of the exile government at Dharamsala (BY).416

'Ol-kha Chos[ -kyi] rgyal-mtshan (fl. 1670s): 22nd Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.417

dPal-ldan grags-pa (d. 1774), bshes-gnyen chen-po mkhan-chen: Was appointed dza-sag [bla-ma] of dPa'-shod in 1767. Later, he became Tutor to rTa-tshag VIII.418

dPal-ldan shes-rab: gsol-dpon in 1817 or 1877.419

dPal-ldan shes-rab: dza-sag bla-ma of Kun-bde gling in 1880.420

dPal-'byor lhun-'grub (fl. 1580s): 13th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.421

'Phrin-las grags-pa (fl. 1590s): 14th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.422

Rag-ra sprul-sku alias khri-sprul (JGK): Incarnations of a khri-tshab of dPa'-shod.423

Rag-ra Karma dkon-mchog: fl. 2nd quarter of 19th ct. at the monastery of dPa'-shod424. He is probably identical with Rag-ra dKon-mchog ('s khri-'dzin)?425

Rag-ra khri-sprul Ngag-dbang bstan-pa rgyal-mtshan: fl. 2nd quarter of 19th ct. at the monastery of dPa'-shod.426

Rag-ra sprul-sku dPal-ldan lung-rtogs: fl. at an unknown time at the monastery of dPa'-shod.427

Rag-ra bsTan-'dzin tshul-khrims: fl. 2nd quarter of 19th ct. at the monastery of dPa'-shod.428 429

Rag-ra bsTan-pa 'phel-rgyas: fl. 1750s as dPa'-shod dza-sag bla-ma.430

Rin-chen dar-rgyas: Was nang-so between Kun-bde gling and Peking, in 1810 or 1870.431

Rin-chen blo-gros (fl. 1640s): 19th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.432

bSam-gtan tshe-ring: Tshag-sgur gzhis-sdod of 1894.433

Shes-rab bkra-shis (fl. 1660s): 21st Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.434

Shes-rab dbang-phyug (fl. 1620): 17th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.435

Shes-rab dpal-ldan (fl. 1550s): 10th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.436

bSod-nams 'od-zer (fl. 1480s): 2nd Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.437

bSod-nams rin-chen (fl. 1510): 5th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.438

bsTan-'dzin rgya-mtsho was dza-sag bla-ma of Kun-bde gling in 1798.439

Tsha-ba Byams-pa bde-legs, rab-'byams-pa: Student at the Thos-bsam Faculty of dPa'-shod.440

Tsha-sgur bKra-shis tshe-ring: Was sne-len in the first half of the 1920s.441

Tsha-gur bsTan-pa dbang-phyug (fl. 1899(?)/1930-er/1936-1937) wurde um 1888 in Tsh(w)a-gur vielleicht als Verwandter des Achten Jibcün Damba qutuqtu Ngag-dbang blo-bzang chos-kyi nyi-ma bstan-'dzin dbang-phyug (1870-1924)442 von Urga geboren. Um 1899 (1937: "vor vierzig Jahren", im zarten Alter von zehn Jahren?) trat er sein Amt als dza-sag von Kun-bde gling an. Im Winter 1936/1937 war er die

leading power in the National Assembly [JGK: tshogs-'dus], .. He is a most impressive man, very tall for a Tibetan and vigorous in spite of his advanced age and with a deeply lined face full of character and determination. Though he has a charming gently manner, he is obviously one of the most forceful personalities in Lhasa.443

The Abbot of Gundeling monastery, who has held the post for forty years, is a man of great character. Although he comes from a humble family, he holds the title of Dzasa and is allowed to wear a yellow robe, similar in pattern to that worn by a Shap-pe [JGK: zhabs-pad], under his monk's dress. He is a very tall man with a firm but humorous mouth and bright intelligent eyes. .."444

In 1944, he was in charge of Kun-bde gling and assisted by eight junior monk officials.445

Tshul-khrims dam-chos: mdzod-pa and dza-sag bla-ma of Kun-bde gling in 1842/1892.446

Tshul-khrims don-'grub, rab-'byams-pa: Founder of the hermitages of rDza-ri, (*Bar?)-spang ri, Shing-skor, and mKha'-lding, all nearby the monastery of dPa'-shod. He studied under bla-ma bLo-bzang bde-chen who also took his rab'byung-vows. At some stage he stayed at the hermitage of Pha-bong kha. Later he travelled the lands of Chab-mdo and dPa'-shod as "missionary" and at an unknown date he stayed at the hermitages of rTse-ru and Rong-kha-ba dKar-po. He died in Chu-bo ri at the age of 113 dgung-lo. His burial stupa is housed at the monastery of dPa'-shod.447

Tshul-bkras-pa (<Tshul-khrims bkra-shis?, fl. 1520s): 7th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.448

*Tshul-khrims bkra-shis: See Tshul-bkras-pa.

Tshul-khrims rgyal-ba (fl. 1490s): 3rd Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.449

Tshul-khrims seng-ge dkon-cog rin-chen (fl. 1500): 4th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.450

Ye-shes rab-brtan: mdzod-chen until 1816.451

Yon-tan bzang-po (fl. 1570s): 12th Abbot of the monastery of dPa'-shod.452

Yul-steng Byams-pa ye-shes was dza-sag bla-ma of dPa'-shod in the mid-18th century.453 Until 1798, he was mkhan-po of dGa'-ldan chos-'khor and from 1798 until ? dza-sag bla-ma of dPa'-shod?454


Appendix III: Documents Relating to Kun-bde gling

5.1.2. Von den rTa-tshag Regenten ausgestellte Urkunden

.. Urkunden des 1. rTa-tshag Regenten (1789-1790, 1791-1811)

Documents issued by or to rTa-tshag VIII:

  • Petition aus Nag-chu von 1789 an den Achten Dalai Lama455
  • Aufschrift/Widmung (?) auf einem "Schal" (snyan-shal) für die im Kuan-ti Temple (rGya-nag pho-brang)456 befindliche Statue des Kuan-ti (Kon lo-ye) vom 5.II.1793.457
  • Aufschrift/Widmung (?) auf zwei Kleidungsstücke für dPal-gsol-thog und lHa-mo zhi-drag vom 5.II.1793.458
  • bCa'-yig des Kun-bde gling-Klosters (KLCY).459
  • Text zur Erklärung von Schriften und Präzepten für die Mönche von Kun-bde gling.460
  • dBus gtsang kun bde gling gi zhal 'don gsung chog sogs kyi skor.461
  • Aufschriften auf sechs Stoffen von sechs Speeren des bSam-yas Klosters von 1798462
  • Ein weiterer "Überrest" ist eine Art von Schärpe, die rTa-tshag VIII. kreiert zu haben scheint und die deshalb als rta-tshag mngag-btags bekannt ist.463


  1. Zustimmungs-/Konfirmationsvermerk (?) vom 11.01.1794464
  2. Bestätigungs-/Verlängerungsvermerk (?gtan-ljags) für die Ambane "Lo" und "Hung" (?) einer Herrscherurkunde (she-bam) des Achten Dalai Lama ausgestellt 1794 für bShad-sgra Kun-dga' bstan-'dzin (fl. 1794) und seine Brüder zwecks der Güter Bang-stag sgo-ba in sMon-mkhar, sNye-mo,465 und Legs-gling466 in Gra-phyi.467
  3. Herrscherurkunde (?) von 1806/1807468
  4. Herrscherurkunde/Amtliche Verfügung von 1807/1808469
  5. Verfügung ('go-mchan) von 1808 oder kurz darauf.470
  6. Spendenaufruf vom 08. (recte: 18.)10.1809471=Erlaß (bka'-shog) vom 18.10.1809472
  7. Herrscherurkunde (she-bam?) mit Zusatzvermerk, beide von 1809/1810473
  8. Herrscherurkunde ('go-mchan) von 1809/1810474 Urkunden des 2. rTa-tshag Regenten (1875-1886)

  1. Herrscherurkunde vom 25.02.1884475 Urkunden von Seiten der Ch'ing für den 1. rTa-tshag Regenten (1789-1790, 1791-1811)

  1. Chinesisches Memorandum vom 3.III.1792.476
  2. Über Lam-yig für Inkarnationen und Mönche auf Reisen von 1793477
  3. Petition/Report (snyan-zhu) an die Ambane von 1793 oder früher478
  4. bKa'-yig von 1793 betreffs der Erkennung der Inkarnation des Qalq-a (? "Ha'i-khe'i") erdeni bandida qutuqtu479
  5. Brief der Ambane an den Kaiser (?) vom VII.1793480
  6. Geschenkliste für Dalai Lama VIII., Pan-chen IV. und rTa-tshag VIII. vom 14.XI.CL 58481
  7. Memorandum betreffs der Übereignung des Klosters von Yangs-pa-can482 an rTa-tshag VIII um 1795.483
  8. Eingabe Sung-yün und Ho-nings vom 10.II.1795484
  9. Eingabe Sung-yün und Ho-nings vom 9.III.1795485
  10. "Programm" für 1795486
  11. Undatierte "Spendenliste" wohl von 1795487
  12. Undatierte Vorratsliste (?)488
  13. 489



3.1.1. The Official Seals of the rTa-tshag Regents

  1. Seal (rgya-dam) granted to rTa-tshag VII by the Seventh Dalai Lama; later, probably from 1789 to 1805, it was also used by rTa-tshag VIII. Measures: 5/5.1x4.8/5.1; 3.7/3.8x3.7;490 4, 7x4, 7 (3, 5x3, 5). The inscription reads: gnam bskos 'jam dbyangs gong ma chen po yi bkas ye shes yongs rdzogs bsam gtan mkhan po rje drung hu thug thu'i tham ga bkra shis bde legs 'phel.491 This seal is referred to in Tibetan as rgya-tham hor-yig gling-bdun-ma or rgya-dam gling-bdun hor-yig.492
  2. Silver seal (dngul-tham chen-mo) granted, in 1787, [by the Eighth Dalai Lama?].493 This seal appears to be identical with the one copied, in 1791, and referred to as rgya-tham gling-drug hor-yig-ma gru-bzhi.494
  3. Silver seal (dngul-tham) granted in 1792.495
  4. Seal (rgya-dam) of rTa-tshag IX. Measurements: 4.7/4.6x 4.5/4.4; 3.6/3.5x3.35. Note the syllable dza in Vartula script496 atop the inscription which reads: bod kyi las don khur 'dzin zh[w]a ser bstan pa 'dzin byed dpal ldan no min han gyi tham ga rnam par rgyal lo.497 This yeal was also used by the De-mo regent 1811/1815-1819.498
  5. Square seal (sel-dam) used by both regents. Measurements: 1.5x1.4/1.35; 1.1x0.95/1.0;499 1, 7x1, 7 (1, 3x1, 3). The inscription reads: bde skyid 'phel.500
  6. Silver seal:501
  7. Silver seal:502
  8. Silver seal:503
  9. Silver seal:504
  10. Iron seal:505
  11. Silvered iron seal:506
  12. Wooden seal:507

The seals nos. 1, 4 and 5 were generally kept in a room of the Potala known as gZim-chung-sbug.508


Ein kurzer Blick auf die Angaben über die Siegel der anderen Regenten des späten 18. Bis 19. Jahrhunderts zeigt, daß es interessante Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Materialien gab. Folgende Angaben sind nach dem offiziellen Regierungshandbuch von 1909 (LBMB 1991, 19ff.).

Goldsiegel: Tshe-smon gling (I.) Ngag-dbang tshul-khrims,

Silbersiegel: De-mo VI., rTa-tshag VIII., Tsho-smon gling (II.?) Ngag-dbang 'jam-dpal tshul-khrims,

Edelsteinsiegel (nor-bu'i tham-ga): Tshe-smon gling Ngag-dbang 'jam-dpal tshul-khrims,

3. Zur Bedeutung des Klosters von Kun-bde gling innerhalb Tibets, bzw. Sino-tibetischer Politik (im Jahre 1809): Quatsch?

Obzwar über Kun-bde gling bis in die jüngste Zeit so gut wie Nichts im Westen bekannt war, hatte es wichtige Mittlerfunktionen zwischen der tibetischen und der Ch'ing-Regierung..

4.1. Spendenliste von 1809

In einer Spendenliste vom (1)8. Oktober 1809509, also zu einem Zeitpunkt an dem das Oberhaupt von Kun-bde gling einen Regenten gestellt hatte, nahm unser Kloster den zweiten Platz von achtzehn in Lhasa befindlichen Ämtern oder Residenzen hoher weltlicher und geistlicher Würdenträger ein. Um einen genaueren Einblick in die damaligen Verhältnisse zu gewinnen, sei hier eine detailierte Spendenliste gegeben.

  1. 'Phral-bde (las-khungs):
  2. Kun-bde gling bla-brang: In 1809, the Bla-brang was administered by ..
  3. sPyi-khyab mkhan-po:510
  4. rGyal-sras phyag-mdzod:511
  5. rDo-ring/dGa'-bzhi:512
  6. bShad-sgra513 phyag-mdzod: Unidentified treasurer.514
  7. Zur-khang515 phyag-mdzod:
  8. Khri-smon516 phyag-mdzod:
  9. bsTan-rgyas gling:
  10. Rwa-sgreng bla-brang:
  11. bSam-'grub pho-brang Phyag-rdor dbang-phyug (+1817)517:
  12. bShad-gling bla-brang: *bShad-sgra gling-kha'i bla-brang?
  13. mda'-dpon Pha-lha (fl. 1807-1832)518
  14. bKra-shis chos-lding519:
  15. lHa-klu (fl. 1808-1832?)520
  16. lha-gnyer gYu-thog (fl. 1809-1814/1822?)521
  17. phogs-dpon Tsha-rong (fl. 1808-1810)522
  18. Bla-brang rnying-pa=phogs-dpon Thon sras (fl. 1808-1848) 523:

Es mag weiterhin wichtig sein zu beobachten, daß in dem "Who's Who in Tibet" (15. Jh. bis 1814/1820) die Linie derer von rTa-tshag an zweiter Stelle behandelt wird, wie eben auch gerade unser Kun-bde gling Kloster oben No 2.


Appendix III:

Among the important relics are the stupas of the seventh and eleventh rTa-tshag qutuqtu.525

The whole monastic complex of dPa'-shod consists of the following buildings:526

  1. Dam-can khang: 6 pillars,
  2. me-tog ra-ba'i pho-brang dben-gnas Drang-srong kun-smon bkra-shis bde-legs dga'-tshal: Built before 1760.
  3. 'Du-khang: Built between 1833 and 1848; 24 pillars,
  4. mGon-khang Chos-srung rgya-mtsho'i lte-gnas rdo-rje'i pho-brang: Built in the mid-1830s;
  5. Grwa-khang: 10 rooms,
  6. Grwa-tshang 'Gro-phan dar-rgyas gling: Built in the 1650s, 1 pillar,
  7. Grwa-tshang spyi-khang: ca. 30 pillars,
  8. lHan-rgyas tshogs-khang Nor-'dzin bla-brang,
  9. sMan-bla khang: 24 pillars,
  10. gNas-bcu khang: 15 pillars,
  11. Pho-brang dGa'-ldan rnam-rgyal: Apparently on its roof stand or stood dings/rooms (gzim-chung) which had been built, in 1694:527
  12. Pho-brang Legs-skyob(s) gling: Palace built in the 1800s: 1 Jo-khang,
  13. sPyi-khang: 28 rooms,
  14. Rag-ra gzim-khang bKra-shis gling: Built between 1833 and 1848; 3 gzim-chung, 1 mgon-khang=Rag-ra Ngag-dbang bstan-pa rgyal-mtshan's "bedroom" (gzim-khang) bKra-shis gling:528
  15. Rung-khang che-ba529: 9 pillars,
  16. Sa-ga khang:24 pillars
  17. rTa-tshag dKon-cog nyi-ma's residence (bzhugs-khang): 9 rooms,
  18. Tshogs-khang: 36 pillars; statues of lHo-pa gNas-thang bla-ma rGyal-mtshan senge-ge, Kun-dga' legs-pa, rDzing-kha bla-ma, Tsha-ba sngags-chen, Rag-ra khri-chen, etc.; stupas of mkhan-chen dPal-ldan grags-pa, a set of KJ, TJ and the Collected Works of Tsong-kha-pa and his two disciples by Yul-steng dza-sag Byams-pa ye-shes.
  19. Tshogs-chen: 36 pillars,
  20. Tshoms-chen: Built between 1833 and 1848; 18 pillars
  21. Tshoms-chen dGa'-ldan phun-tshogs gling-ka: 26 pillars,
  22. monk's living quarters (grwa-khang): ca. 134 units (?).
  • 'Og-min: Sandalwood statue of Avalokiteshvara, one set of the Collected Works of Tsong-kha-pa and a set of the Canon.
  • Nyi-'od:
  • dGa'-ldan g.yu-'dzin:
  • Tshe-bcud:
  • Yid-dga': 6 pillars, contains throne of rTa-tshag, statue (sman-'jim) of the Fifth Dalai Lama, statue of [rTa-tshag I] Ngag-dbang dkon-mchog nyi-ma.
  • Nub Rab-gsal:

Among important relics and works of art must be mentioned the following.

  • Gilt bronze statue of Thub-pa g.yu-mdongs-ma from the middle of the ninth century.530
  • Mummy of rTa-tshag II.531
  • Mummy of mKhar-steng rab-'byams-pa Tshul-khrims don-grub.532
  • Skull of dPa'-shod grub-chen Blo-bzang bde-chen enshrined in a stupa.533
  • Stupa with the remains of bshes-gnyen chen-po sKal-bzang chos-grags.534
  • Stupa(s?) with the remains of (one or more) Rag-ra sprul-sku.535
  • Painted scroll depicting rTa-tshag VII and known as "lHa mo nga gzigs ma".536

   23. =dPa'-shod bla-brang: 1694 gegründeted Kloster.537
   24. Gebiet in Tsha-ba538rong südlich von Chab-mdo.539
   25. dPa'-shod* rdzong war ursprünglich ein Distrikt (seit 1960: Kreis) im östlichen Teil der jetzigen "Autonomen Region" bei 29.2º~31.º, 96.2º~97.4º zwischen sPo-smad, lHo-rong, Ri-bo-che, Chab-mdo, Brag-g.yab, mDzo-sgang und rDza-yul.540
   26. Wohl nicht identisch mit dPa'-shod im *Glang-Distrikt (HTTM 23).



The Dependencies (le-lag) and Hermitages (ri-khrod) of the monastery of dPa'-shod dGa'-ldan bsam-'grub gling

  1. dBang-ke541 dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 60 monks.542
  2. dBang-dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 60 monks.543
  3. Bong-chen dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 20 monks.544
  4. Brag-mgo ri-khrod: Hermitage located north of dPa'-shod Monastery.545
  5. 'Brug-gdong ri-khrod: Hermitage located southwest of dPa'-shod Monastery and founded by rDzing-k(h)a546 bla-ma sKal-ldan rgyal-mtshan.547
  6. Bya-phud mDo-sngags dar-rgyas gling: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery.548 It is also a rather old monastery - founded at the behest of a certain bsTan-pa dpal-grub - in the area, as, at an unknown date in the second half of the sixthteenth century - certainly after 1550 and before 1605 - Ba-so lHa-dbang chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan (1537-1605) served as its fifth abbot.549
  7. lCags-zam dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 20 monks.550
  8. mDo-dgon bShad-sgrub gling: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 300 monks.551
  9. *rDo-grong-shug gsum: Monastic estate granted by the Eighth Dalai Lama.552
  10. Dung-ri ri-khrod: Hermitage close to dPa'-shod Monastery.553
  11. sGrol-ma lha-khang: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 60 monks.554
  12. sGrub-khang gling-ga at Me-tog ra-ba: Hermitage located south-east of dPa'-shod Monastery and founded by rTa-tshag dPal-ldan rgyal-mtshan.555
  13. mKha'-lding ri-khrod: Hermitage located northwest of dPa'-shod Monastery.556
  14. mKhar-steng dgon of dPa'-shod: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 15 monks and 10 nuns.557
  15. Kha-sar ri-khrod: Hermitage located northwest of dPa'-shod Monastery.558
  16. rKo-bkog dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 10 monks.559
  17. La-kha dgon dGa'-ldan ri-bo chos-'phel: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery founded by a certain bSu-rong-pa bKra-shis rab-brtan. It was fully named by 'Phags-pa-lha II ; before 1959, it housed 40 monks.560
  18. lHo-chen dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 20 monks.561
  19. sMyong-dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 40 monks.562
  20. rNga-g.yab gling: Nunnery and dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 20 monks.563
  21. rNgu-rung ri-khrod: Hermitage near dPa'-shod Monastery.564
  22. 'O-chu dgon: Dependency of Bya-phud mDo-sngags dar-rgyas gling (see no. 1).565
  23. sPang-leb dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 20 monks.566
  24. Ri-bo-che lCags-zam: Monastic estate granted by Pho-lha-ba.567
  25. Ri-'bur dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 100 monks.568
  26. Sab-bkra dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 40 monks.569
  27. Sa-dkar dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 30 monks. It is also said to house the cap/hat of Tsong-kha-pa.570
  28. Shug-steng dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 100 monks.571
  29. bSil-ldan ri-khrod: Hermitage located south of dPa'-shod Monastery.572
  30. Sing-steng: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed one bla-ma and 12 nuns.573
  31. rTa-tshag lHun-'grub bde-chen gling: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 20 monks.574
  32. Wa-rta dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 50 monks.575
  33. Yag-dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 50 monks.576
  34. Yul-steng577 dgon: Dependency of dPa'-shod Monastery; before 1959, it housed 90 monks.578


Abbreviations and Bibliography

AA: Oral communications by André Alexander, Lhasa 1999.

BÄRLOCHER, Daniel: Tibetan Testimonies, Opuscula Tibetana, Rikon ...

BDTB: KHETSUN DANGPO (comp.): Biographical Dictionary of Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism, Dharamsala

BELL, Charles: Religion of Tibet, Oxford 1931.

BERGER, Patricia und Terese Tse BARTHOLOMEW (eds.): Mongolia, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco 1995.

BKLG: PHUN-TSHOGS TSHE-RING: Bod kyi lo rgyus don chen re'u mig, Peking 1991.

BKYT: RDO-RJE TSHE-BRTAN (ed.): Bod kyi yig tshags phyogs bsgrigs, Bd. I, Lhasa (?) 1997.


BTLY: SI-TU VIII Chos-kyi rgya-mtsho (1880-1925): Gangs ljongs dbus gtsang gnas bskor lam yig nor bu zla shel gyi se mo do (1921?), reproduced by Khams-sprul Don-brgyud nyi-ma, Tashijong/Palampur 1972.

BTNT: 'JAM-DBYANGS MKHYEN-BRTSE DBANG-PO Kun-dga' bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan (1820-1892): dBus gtsang gi gnas rten rags rim gyi mtshan byang mdor bsdus dad pa'i sa bon (1892), edited and annotated in FERRARI passim.

BTNY: lHa ldan sogs dbus 'gyur chos sde khag dang/ yar klung lho rgyud/ gtsang stod/ byang rwa sgreng rgyal ba'i 'byung gnas sogs kyi rten gnas mang po'i gnas yig ngo mtshar lung ston me long (A Pilgrim's Guide to Central Tibet), ed. sGrol-ma-skyid, Hsi-ning 1993.

BY: Oral communication by dge-bshes Brag-g.yab IX Blo-ldan shes-rab (Bonn).

CHAB-SPEL: SKAL-BZANG DAR-RGYAS (ed.): Chab spel tshe brtan phun tshogs kyi gsung rtsom phyogs bsgrigs, n.p. (Hsü-chou?) 1993.

CHAN Victor: Tibet Handbook, Chico 1994.

CHANG Ch'i-lo: Hsi Tsang tsung-chiao yüan-liu k'ao, verf. ca. 1910, reprinted in: Hsi Tsang yen-chiu ts'ung-k'an II, 47-110, Lhasa 1982.


CHMO 13: BSHAD-SGRA dGa'-ldan dpal-'byor, CHAB-TSHOM 'Chi-med rgyal-po and SREG-SHING Blo-bzang don-grub: "De snga'i bod sa gnas srid gzhung gi srid 'dzin sgrig gzhi", in: Bod kyi lo rgyus rig gnas dpyad gzhi'i rgyu cha bdams bsgrigs 13, Peking 1991, 101.

- SLE-ZUR 'Jigs-med dbang-phyug and BDE-ZUR Rin-chen dbang-'dus: "De snga'i bla brang rgyal mtshan mthon po'i srid 'dzin sgrig gzhi spyi'i gnas tshul", ", in: Bod kyi lo rgyus rig gnas dpyad gzhi'i rgyu cha bdams bsgrigs 13, Peking 1991, 102-196.

CHMO 18, 1-192: SKYID-SBUG Don-grub phun-tshogs: "'Phags pa lha sku phreng rim byon", in: Bod kyi lo rgyus rig gnas dpyad gzhi'i rgyu cha bdams bsgrigs 18, Peking 1995, 1-192.

CHUNG Li: "Kung-te-lin", in: LSWW 62f.

CLTWA: LOBSANG SHASTRI (comp.): Catalogue of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, vol. 2, Dharamsala 1990.


DABRINGHAUS, Sabine: Das Qing-Imperium als Vision und Wirklichkeit, Münchener Ostasiatische Studien 69, Stuttgart 1994.

DAS, Sarat Chandra: The Government of Tibet, Calcutta 1884.

- Narrative of a Journey to Lhasa in 1881-82, Calcutta 1885.

- Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet, ed. by William Woodville ROCKHILL, London 1904.=JLCT!!!

- An Introduction to the Grammar of the Tibetan Language, Calcutta 1915.

DL5d=AHMAD 1999.





DM8: HOR-KHANG bSod-nams dpal-'bar: "De mo sprul sku sku phreng brgyad par bod sa gnas srid gzhung gis nyes ming bkal ba'i skor", in: CHMO VIII (1986) 228-234.


Document 1794: Zweisprachige (tibetisch und chinesisch) Inschrift von 21 Zeilen (tibetischer Text) auf den Nord- und Südseiten einer Stein-Stele (ca. 8-9 x 2.5 engl. Fuß) unterhalb des Ge-sar lha-khang/Kuan-ti miao; tibetischer Text, englische Übersetzung und grobe Beschreibung in RICHARDSON 1974, 61-63. Siehe Tafel X.

FPYL: CH'I Yün-shih (1751-1815): Huang-ch'ao fan-pu yao-lüeh (1795?), first published by the author's son, CH'I Chün-tsao, in 1845; photomechanic reprint of the edition dated 1884 as vol. I/15 of the Chung-kuo fang-lüeh ts'ung-shu, Taipei 1968.

FSYL: ANONYM: Fan-seng yüan-liu k'ao, verf. ca. 1840, Neudruck in: Hsi Tsang yen-chiu ts'ung-k'an II, 1-45, Lhasa 1982.

GBMG: KLONG-RDOL Ngag-dbang blo-bzang (1719-1795): bsTan 'dzin gyi skyes bu rga bod du byon pa'i ming gi grangs, Gesammelte Werke Bd. za; in: LOKESH CHANDRA (ed.): The Collected Works of Longdol Lama, SP 100, 2 Bde., New Delhi 1973, nos. 1150-1214.

GCMD: KO-ZHUL Grags-pa 'byung-gnas und RGYAL-BA Blo-bzang mkhas-grub: Gangs can mkhas grub rim byon ming mdzod, Lan-chou 1992.

GDCB: SANGS-RGYAS RGYA-MTSHO (1652-1705): dPal mnyam med ri bo dga' ldan oa'i bstan pa zhwa ser cod pan 'chang ba'i ring lugs chos thams cad kyi rtsa ba gsal bar byed pa bai dùrya ser po'i me long, vollendet 1698, Peking 1989.

GJKC: Gangs can gyi ljongs su bka' dang bstan bcos sogs kyi glegs bam spar gzhi ji ltar yod pa rnams nas dkar chag spar thor phyogs tsam du bkod pa phan bde'i pad tshal 'byed pa'i nyin byed, n.p. (Lhasa?) o.D. (zwischen 1941-1950), ed. und photomechanisch reproduziert von Ngawang Gelek DEMO: Three Karchaks, Gedan Sungrab Minyan Gyunphel Series 13, Neu Delhi 1970, 169-243.

GJLG: DON-RDOR und BSTAN-'DZIN CHOS-GRAGS (komp.): Gangs ljongs lo rgyus thog gi grags can mi sna, n.p. (Lhasa) 1993.

GKCB: STAG-SGANG mkhas-mchog Ngag-dbang blo-gros alias Gu-ru bKra-shis (fl. 1800s-1810s): bsTan pa'i snying po gsang chen snga 'gyur nges don zab mo'i chos kyi 'byung ba byed pa'i legs bshad mkhas pa dga 'byed ngo mtshar gtam gyi rol mtsho, compiled 1807-1813, published under the title of Gu bkra'i chos 'byung, Peking 1990.

GOLDSTEIN, Melvyn C. (b. 1938): An Anthropological Study of the Tibetan Political System, PhD thesis, Washington 1968.

- "The Circulation of Estates in Tibet: Reincarnation, Land and Politics", in: Journal of Asian Studies XXXII/3 (May 1973) 445-455.

GZMR: RDO-RING bsTan-'dzin dpal-'byor (*1760): dGa' bzhi ba'i mi rabs kyi byung ba brjod pa zol med gtam gyi rol mo, verf. 1810 (?), n.p. (Lhasa?) 1988.

HACKMANN, Heinrich (1864-1935): "Streiflichter auf die Entwicklung des Bauplans chinesischer buddhistischer Klöster in ihrem Verhältnis zum buddhistischen Kultus", edited by Eduard Horst von TSCHARNER (1901-1962) under the title of "Zum chinesischen Buddhismus" in Asiatische Studien V (1951) 81-112, esp. 83-93.

HAN Ju-lin: "Lo-ma K'ai-sa yü Kuan Yü tsai Hsi Tsang", in: Studia Serica II/2 (1941) 30-37.

HAUER, Erich: Handwörterbuch der Mandjusprache, Bd. I, Hamburg/Tokyo 1952.

HEISSIG, Walther: "Ein mongolisches Textfragment über den Ölötenfürsten Galdan", in: Sinologische Arbeiten 2 (1944) 92-160.

- Erdeni-yin erike (1835), Monumenta Linguarum Asiae Maioris, Series Nova II, Kopenhagen 1961.

HO Wen-hsüan and TOU Ts'un-ch'I (eds.): Bod rgya shan sbyar gyi shes bya'i rnam grangs kun btus tshig mdzod – Han Tsang tui-chao ch'ang-yung ho-ch'eng tz'u tz'u-tien, Hsi-ning 1987.

HOR-KHANG bSod-nams dpal-'bar: "De mo sprul sku sku phreng brgyad par bod sa gnas srid gzhung gis nyes ming bkal ba'i skor" (On the Regentship of De-mo VIII), in: CHMO VIII, 228-234.

HTCY: WU Chung-hsin: Hsi Tsang chi-yao (Account of Tibet), n.p., n.d. (1954?).

HTLSNP: TUAN K'o-hsing, HU Tung-chu and CHU Chieh-lin (comp.): Hsi Tsang li-shih nien-piao/ Bod kyi lo rgyus lo tshigs re'u mig (Chronological Charts on Tibetan History), n.p. (Hsi-an?), n.d. (1981?).

HTSH: TO-CHIEH TS'AI-TAN [rDo-rje tshe-brtan] (ed.): Hsi Tsang feng-chien nung-nu chih sheh-hui hsing-t'ai, Peking 1996.

IsMEO: Elena de ROSSI FILIBECK; Catalogue of the Tucci Tibetan Fund in the Library of IsMEO, Bd. 1, Rom 1994.

JDLG: (Ri-bo-che) RJE-DRUNG 'Jam-dpal rgyal-mtshan: "Khams ri bo che dgon dang/ rje drung sprul sku gong ma/ mgar ra bla ma bcas kyi lo rgyus rags bsdus", in: CHMO VI, 207-233.

JIG: ANONYM: Juktehen-i gebu (Verzeichnis lamaistischer Tempelnamen in den Sprachen mandjurisch, mongolisch, tibetisch und chinesisch), Manuskript vor 1781; photomechanisch wiedergegeben in HEISSIG 1961, Anhang.

JLCT: SARAT CHANDRA DAS: Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet, London 1904.

KARSTEN, Joachim G.: A Study on the sKu-'bum/T'a-erh ssu Monastery in Ch'ing-hai, PhD Dissertation University of Auckland 1997, 2 volumes.

- "On Some Chinese and Chinese-Named Tibetan Sites in Lhasa (17th-20th Centuries)", in: ROBIN, and Heather STODDARD (ed.): La valée de Lhasa, London 2000(?), manuscript of 35 pages.

KAULBACK, Ronald: Salween, London n.d. (1938).

KDL: 'JAM-DPAL YE-SHES RGYAL-MTSHAN: "dBus gtsang kun bde gling gi byung ba brjod pa 'jam dbangs dgyes pa'i me tog", in: Bod ljongs nang bstan 1995/2, 52-70.

KDL Document 19: 'Bul-tho by the then Kun-bde gling sba-yar mkhan-po to the Chia-ch'ing emperor, dated 1809; TAL no. 012/1-1/2/9.

KDL Document 22: rTsa-tshig on the occasion of the discovery and installation of rTa-tshag XI, issued in 1888; TAL no. 012/1-1/3/2.

KDL Document 23: brJed-byang on the occasion of the discovery and installation of rTa-tshag XI, n. p., n. d. (c. 1890); TAL no. 012/1-1/3/3.

KDL Document 32: sTsal-tho by the Kuang-hsü emperor to rTa-tshag X, 1882; TAL no. 012/1-1/4/2.

KDL Document 45: Undated bstar-gzhung to rTa-tshag IX, n. p., n. d. (1813?); TAL no. 012/1-1/5/7.

KDL Document 46: Undated bstar-gzhung to rTa-tshag IX, n. p., n. d. (1813?); TAL no. 012/1-1/5/8.

KDL Document 74: 'Byed-khra of the monastic estates of Kun-bde gling, lHa-pa and 'Ong-grong in Tshal-bde, sTod-lung, compiled in 1946; TAL no. 012/2-1/113/2.

KDL Document 75: Undated zhing-tho of the estates of rGyal(-gsab) sgang, bDe-chen and Ba-glang shar and Ba-glang nub; n.p., n.d.; TAL no. 012/2-1/77/2.

KDL Document 77: Undated song-deb of a journey of the rTa-tshag X and rGyal-sras *VII to 'On; n.p. (Kun-bde gling?), n.d. (last year mentioned: 1876); TAL no. 012/1-1/7/1.

KDL Document 78: Son-tho of the serves of Kun-bde gling in the District of gSang-(sngags chos-) rdzong in rDza-yul; compiled probably in either 1848 or 1908; TAL no. 012/2-1/39/1.

KDL Document 89: Bilingual (Chinese/Tibetan) lam-yig from Kun-bde gling from the year of 1894; Tal no. 012/1-1/9/1-1.

KDL Document 91: Lam-yig to Kun-bde gling gnyer-pa, 'Jam-dbyangs 'od-zer (fl. 1890s); TAL no. 012/???

KDL Document 92: Name-cards of 'Jam-dbyangs 'od-zer (fl. 1890s); TAL no. 012/???

KDL Document 93: Lam-yig to Kun-bde gling gnyer-pa, 'Jam-dbyangs 'od-zer (fl. 1890s) by the then Governor-general of Szu-ch'uan, (), dated 1893; TAL no. 012/???

KDL Document 95: Lam-yig for the then sba-yer mkhan-po, 'Jam- dbyangs 'od-zer (fl. 1890s); TAL no. 012/???

KDL Document 96: Lam-yig for 'Jam- dbyangs 'od-zer (fl. 1890s) by the authorities of Ta-ch'ien lu; TAL no. 012/???

KDL Document 98: Lam-yig for 'Jam- dbyangs 'od-zer (fl. 1890s) by the Ministry of War, dated 1894; TAL no. 012/???

KDL Document 99: Lam-yig for 'Jam- dbyangs 'od-zer (fl. 1890s) by the Ministry of War, dated 1894; TAL no. 012/???

KDL Document 112: gZhung-khra dated I IX 1851 (me-'brug); TAL no. 012/1-1/11/4.

KDL Document 122: SUNG-YÜN (1752-1835): Wang-shu issued to rTa-tshag VIII; TAL no. 012/1-1/12/5.

KDL Document 131: List of followers of a rTa-tshag qutuqtu; TAL no. 012/1-1/14/5.

KDL Document 150: Wang-shu issued, in 1843, by the authorities of Kun-bde gling to the then Amban, Sung-yün (1752-1835) to Kun-bde gling lde-'chang Tshul-khrims dam-chos (fl. 1840s); TAL no. 012/1-1/16/2.

KDL Document 158: Lam-deb by the authorities of Kun-bde gling to the then Amban, Sung-kuei (d. 1907), on the occasion of the appointment of the then dza-sag bla-ma; TAL no. 012/16/10.

KDL Document 215: bsDus-gzhung dated 1817 (me-glang) on the occasion of the inthronization of rTa-tshag IX Ngag-dbang blo-bzang bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan (1811-1848); TAL no. 012/1-1#4/5/4.

KDL Document 218: gZhung-khra dated 1810 or 1860; TAL no. 012/1-1#4/5/7.

KDL Document "457": dNgos-'bul zhu-chung by sba-yer mkhan-po Ngag-dbang bstan-'dzin to rTa-tshag; TAL no. 012/1-2/34/7.

KDL Document "1514": Gan-'dzin by bSam-gtan tshe-ring, gzhis-sdod of Tshag-sgur, dated 1894; TAL no. 012/2-1/1/53/29.

KDNT: RTA-TSHAG (VIII) Ye-shes blo-bzang bstan-pa'i mgon-po (1760-1811): rJe btsun bla ma dam pa kun spangs sems dpa' chen po grub pa'i dbang phyug ngag dbang blo bzang dpal bzang po'i rnam thar mos gus rin chen 'dren pa'i shing rta rgyal sras spyod pa'i rgyan, ed. by Ngawang Gelek Demo, Gedan Sungrab Minyan Gyunphel Series XIV, Neu Delhi 1970.

KDSB: KLONG-RDOL Ngag-dbang blo-bzang (1719-1794): Collected Works, Kun-bde gling between 1794 and 1811.

KGNT: THU'U-BKWAN Blo-bzang chos-kyi nyi-ma (1737-1802): Grub pa'i dbang phyug bkra shis rgya mtsho slob brgyud dang bcas pa'i rnam thar mu tig phreng mdzes, the author's Collected works kha 14.

KKCL: Ch'in-ting Kuo-erh-ka chi-lüeh, completed 1795, Hsi Tsang hsüeh Han-wen wen-hsüan lei-k'o I, Lhasa 1991.

KKNT: SI-TU Chos-kyi 'byung-gnas (1699/1700-1774) und 'BE-LO Tshe-dbang kun-khyab (*1718): sGrub brgyud karma kam tshang brgyud pa rin po che'i rnam par thar pa rab 'byams nor bu zla ba chu shelgyi phreng ba, completed 1775; reproduced photomechanically by D. Gyaltsan und Kesang Leg-shay, vol. I, New Delhi 1972.

KLCY: RTA-TSHAG (VIII.) Ye-shes blo-bzang bstan-pa'i mgon-po (1760-1811): dBus gtsang kun bde chos 'khor gling gi bca' yig, verf. 1795 oder wenig später, Fol. 1a-19b (IsMEO 344 No 261; SBKC 288 Ka 13).

*KLGD: *Kun-bde gling mgron-deb (Protocol for Visits to the Dalai Lama), n. p., n. d. (BY).

KOEPPEN, Carl Friedrich: Die Religion des Buddha und ihre Entstehung, Berlin 1857=1906.

KOLMAŠ, Josef: The Ambans and Assistant Ambans of Tibet (A Chronological Study), Archív orientální Supplementa VII, Prague 1994.

KPDZ: Bod dang/ bar khams/ rgya sog bcas kyi bla sprul rnams kyi sku phreng deb gzhung, compiled in 1814 with additions made in 1820, 1824 and 1827 (?), in: LGYC 1991, 281-369.

LANDON, Perceval: Lhasa, 2 Bde., London 1905.

LGRR: CHAB-SPEL Tshe-brtan phun-tshogs und NOR-BRANG O-rgyan: Bod kyi lo rgyus rags rim g.yu yi phreng ba, 3 Bde., Lhasa 1991.

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LMBI: SUSHAMA LOHIA: Lalitavajra's Manual of Buddhist Iconography, SP 379, New Delhi 1994.

LRNT: TSHE-MCHOG-GLING yongs-'dzin Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan (1713-1793): Byang chub lam gyi rim pa'i bla ma brgyud pa'I rnam par thar pa rgyal bstan mdzes pa'i rgyan mchog phul byung nor bu'i phreng ba (Hagiographies of Eminent Monks of India and Tibet), comp. 1787, 4th volume of the author's Collected Works, reproduced by Ngawang Gelek Demo [De-mo Ngag-dbang dge-legs], Gedan Sungrab Minyam Gyunphel Series XVIII, New Delhi 1970.

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MAILLA, Joseph-Anne-Marie de Moyriac de: Histoire générale de la Chine, ou annels de cet empire, 12 volumes, Paris 1780.

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MARTIN, Dan (in collaboration with Yael Bentor): Tibetan Histories, London 1997.

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MHTL: LOKESH CHANDRA: Materials for a History of Tibetan Literature, ?ata-Pitaka Series 28, New Delhi 1963.

MILC: Map and Index of Lhasa City, Dharamsala 1995.

MILLER, Robert James: Monasteries and Cultural Change in Inner Mongolia, Asiatische Forschungen 2, Wiesbaden 1959.

MTFCS: MIAO-CHOU: Meng Tsang fo-chiao shih, Nanking or Shanghai 1935.

MTH: Dieter SCHUH: Urkunden und Sendschreiben aus Zentraltibet, Ladakh und Zanskar, Monumenta Tibetica Historica III/2, St. Augustin 1976.

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NCLG: TSHE-RING RDO-RJE: bCings 'grol sngon gyi nag chu rdzong tsho shog khag gi lo rgyus mdor bsdus (Concise History of the Tribes and Clans of Nag-chu District Before 1951), Lhasa 1995.

NORBU, Thupten Dschigme [sTag-mtsher VII Thub-bstan 'jigs-med nor-bu] in collaboration with Heinrich HARRER: Tibet Verlorene Heimat, Wien/Berlin/Frankfurt/M 1960.

NTGM: KLONG-RDOL Ngag-dbang blo-bzang (1719-1794): rNam that mgur ma ([Auto-]Biography and Songs) KDSB vol. à 1a-21a.

PANDER, Eugen: Das lamaistische Pantheon, in: Berliner Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, Berlin 1889.

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PHUN-TSHOGS: rJe btsun pra dznyà sa ra mchog gi srid zhi'i legs tshogs 'dod rgur 'jo ba'i mdzad 'phrin dang rdo sbis grwa tshang gi gdan rabs dang gsum nor bu'i, published under the short title of dGe bshes shes rab rgya mtsho dang rdo sbis grwa tshang (dge-bshes Shes-rab rgya-mtsho and the rDo-sbis grwa-tshang), Peking 1998.

PSBR: BLO-BZANG CHOS-'PHEL: "gZhon nu dpa' shod dge ldan bsam 'grub gling gyi byung rim ngo sprod", in: Bod ljongs nang btsan 1995/1, 46-64.

RADHU Abdul Wahi: Tibetan Caravans: The Illustrated Narrative, in: Gray HENRY (ed.): Islam in Tibet & The Illustrated Narrative Tibetan Caravans, Louisville, KY, 1997.

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REBT: Report on Exploration in Bhutan and Tibet, (ROCKHILL 1910, 73).

RECHUNG, J.K. [Ras-chung ??] (publ.): Richardson Paper[s?], Gangtok 1993.

RGKC: LHUN-GRUB CHOS-'PHEL: dPal gyi 'byung gnas rwa sgreng rgyal ba'i dben gnas dang/ gtsug lag khang gi rten dang brten par bcas pa'i dkar chag mthong ba don ldan dge legs nor bu'i bang mdzod, veröff. unter dem Kurztitel: Rwa sgreng dgon pa'i dkar chag, Ch'eng-tu 1994.

RNLG: DUNG-DKAR [IX.] Blo-bzang 'phrin-las und BKRA-SHIS DBANG-'DUS: Bod kyi rig gnas dang lo rgyus kyi re'u mig ngo mtshar kun snang, Ch'eng-tu 1997.

RICHARDSON, Hugh [Edward]: "Chos-dbyings Rdo-rje, the Tenth Black Hat Karmapa", in: Bulletin of Tibetology, New Series 1987/I = RECHUNG 1993, 93-116.

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ROSSI FILIBECK, Elena de: "Testi tibetani reguardanti i Gorkha", in: Atti della Academia Nazionale dei Linci 1977 Serie ottava, XXI, 3-57.

SAGASTER, Klaus: Subud erike, Asiatische Forschungen , Wiesbaden 1967.

SANDBERG, Graham: "The City of Lhasa", in: The Nineteenth Century and After, London 1889, 681-694.

SATÔ Hisashi: Chibetto rekishi chiri kenkyû, Tokyo 1978.

SBKC (PK): Bod gangs can gyi grub mtha' ris med kyi mkhas dbang brgya dang brgyad cu lhag gi gsung 'bum so so'i dkar chag phyogs gcig tu bsgrigs pa shes bya'i gter mdzod, erschienen unter dem Kurztitel: Mi rigs dpe mdzod khang gi dpe tho las gsung 'bum skor gyi dkar chag shes bya'i gter mdzod und dem chinesischen Kurztitel: Tsang-wen tien-chi mu-lu, Bd. I, Peking 1984; Bd. II, Peking 1989.

SBKC (PTL): LHAG-PA TSHE-RING (ed.): Zhwa ser bstan pa'i sgron me rje tsong kha pa chen pos gtsos skyes chen dam pa rim byung gi gsung 'bum dkar chag phyogs gcig tu bsgrigs pa'i dri med zla shel gtsang ma'i me long, erschienen unter dem Kurztitel: gSung 'bum dkar chag; chinesischer Kurztitle: Pu-ta-la kung tien-chi mu-lu, o.O 1990.

SCHÄFER Erich: Fest der weißen Schleier, .Braunschweig 1949.

SCHULEMANN, Günther: Geschichte der Dalai Lamas, Leipzig 1958.

SCHWIEGER, Peter & Loden Sherap DAGYAB [Brag-g.yab IX Blo-ldan shes-rab]: Die ersten dGe-lugs-pa-Hierarchen von Brag-g.yab (1572-1692), Monumenta Tibetica Historica II/2, Bonn 1989.

- "The Lineage of the Noble House of Ga-zi in Eastern Tibet", in: ???

SGLG: BSHAD-SGRA dGa'-ldan dpal-'byor: "sGer dga' ldan bshad sgra ba'i khyim tshang mi rabs kyi lo rgyus rags tsam bkod pa", in: Bod kyi lo rgyus rig gnas dpyad gzhi'i rgyu cha bdams bsgrigs 14/5 (1992) 1-225.

SHABKAR: C. WILKINSIN and M. ABRAMS (eds.): The Life of Shabkar: The Autobiography of a Tibetan Yogin, Albany 1994.

SHAKABPA, Tsepon W. D. [Zhwa-sgab-pa rtsis-dpon dBang-phyug bde-ldan (1907/8-1989)]: Tibet: A Political History, New Haven/London 1967.

SMITH E[llis] Gene: "Introduction" to Ngawang Gelek DEMO (ed.): Collected Works of Thu'u-bkwan Blo-bzang-chos-kyi-nyi-ma, Bd. I (KA), New Delhi Januar 1969, 1-7, Appendix I.

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STAG-LHA Phun-tshogs bkra-shis: Mi tshe'i byung ba brjod pa, 3 volumes, Dharamsala 1995.


STEIN, R[olf] A[lfred]: Recherches sur l'épopée et le barde au Tibet, Bibliothèque de l'Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises XIII, Paris 1959.

SURKHANG Wangchen Gelek [Zur-khang dBang-chen dge-legs]: Tibet in the Early 20th Century, Guest essay of Tibetan Studies Internet Newsletter (TSIN) 12.01.1999, Bd. 1#2.


TAL: Tibetan Archives Lhasa = The Archives of the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China, Klu-sdings lho-lam (Luding nanlu) 296, Lhasa 850000.

TARING Rinchen Dolma [Phreng-ring, née Tsha-rong, Rin-chen sgrol-ma (b. 1910)]: Daughter of Tibet, London/Southampton 1970.

TATL : Hsi Tsang sheh-hui li-shih Tsang-wen tang-an tzu-liao yi-wen chi, Peking 1997.

TCCTL: CH'E Ming-huai und LI Hsüeh-ch'in: T'ien-ch'ao ch'ou Zang lu, Lhasa 1996.

TCTB: Bod kyi bstan bcos khag cig gi mtshan byang [dri med shel dkar phreng ba], ed. by GRAGS-PA, Hsi-ning 1985.

TGL: BSHAD-SGRA dGa'-ldan dpal-'byor: "bsTan rgyas gling de mo bla brang dang grwa tshang la khrims chad phog pa'i skor", in: CHMO VIII (1986) 239-255.

TLPC: TAN-CHU ??: Li-pei Ta-lai la-ma yü Pan-ch'an erh-te-ni nien-p'u ("Chronicle of the Genealogy of the Dalai Lama and Bainqen Erdini" [sic]), Peking 1998.

TPC: To-jen pan-chih-ta chuan (Chinesische Übersetzung des GZMR von T'ang Ch'ih-an), Peking 1995.

TPKC: RIN-CHEN DPAL-BZANG (*1924): mTshur phu dgon gyi dkar chag kun gsal me long, Peking 1995.

TSYBIKOV, G[ ombojab] T[ sebekovitch] (*1879): Un pèlerin bouddhiste au Tibet, Paris 1992.

TTKP: TSHE-RING RGYAL-PO: rTa tshag sku phreng rim byon gyi 'khrungs 'das dang/ mdzad 'phrin/ gong ma dang tà la'i bla ma sogs kyi bdag rkyen gnang ba'i skor (On the Lives and Activities of the rTa-tshag Incarnations), manuscript of 19 typewritten pages, Lhasa 2000.

TT8: (Se[-]r[-a]-stod mkhan-chen rgyal-dbang sprul-sku) BLO-BZANG 'PHRIN-LAS RNAM-RGYAL: rTa tshag no min han chen po ye shes blo bzang bstan pa'i mgon po'i rnam thar dad pa'i padmo 'dzum byed, verf. 1813, tibet. Original über 447 Folia; auszugsweise veröffentlicht in: LGYT 1989, 399-457.

TT10: 'BUL-SDUD sprul-sku bsTan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan and dPa'-shod dge-bshes bsTan-pa chos-grags: [ rTa tshag srid skyong gi rnam thar (Hagiography of rTa-tshag X Ngag-dbang dpal-ldan chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan, 1850-1886] , n.p., n.d. (after 1935).

TT11: Klu-'bum dge-bshes Shes-rab rgya-mtsho (1884-1968): [ rTa tshag skal bzang bstan pa'i sgron me'i rnam thar (Hagiography of rTa-tshag XI sKal bzang bstan pa'i sgron me, 1888-1918] , n.p., n.d.

TTCB: RI-BO-CHE dpon-tshang RTA-TSHAG Tshe-dbang-rgyal (fl. 1446-1451): *Dam pa'i chos kyi byung ba'i legs bshad lho rong chos 'byung (ngam rta tshag chos 'byung) zhes rtsom pa'i yul ming du chags pa'i ngo mtshar zhing dkon pa'i dpe khyad par can, 1446-1451, Lhasa 1994.

TTKR: *rTa tshag sku phreng … 'khrungs rabs, manuscript dated 1901;

TTKR: BSOD-NAMS DBANG-GRAG und BKRA[-*SHIS]-THANG: "rTa tshag rje drung rin po che'i 'khrungs rabs gser ri phreng ba", in: Bod ljongs nang btsan 1995/1 (No 17) 28-45.

TTLG: ANONYMOUS: rTa tshag sku phreng rim byon gyi mdzad lam lo rgyus kha gsal bkod pa, manuscript, last date mentioned: 1833;

TTSH: Tsang-tsu she-hui li-shih tiao-ch'a III (Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der tibetischen Gesellschaft III), Kuo-chia wie min-tsu wen-t'i wu-chung ts'ung-shu I, Lhasa 1987.

TWC: Ch'in-ting His-yü t'ung-wen-chih alias Hesei toktobuha wargi aiman I hergen be emu obuha ejetun I bithe (Geographical and Biographical Dictionary of the West[ern Parts of the Ch'ing Empire]), completed 1766, ed. by ENOKI Kazuo et alia, The Toyo Bunko Publication Series C, No. 16, 3 volumes, Tokyo 1962-1964.

VOHD XI/1-4: TAUBE, Martin: Tibetische Handschriften und Blockdrucke, Verzeichnis der Orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland XI, 2, Wiesbaden 1966.

VOHD XI/5-8: SCHUH, Dieter: ,

- , Verzeichnis der Orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland XI, 6, Wiesbaden 1976.

- , Verzeichnis der Orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland XI, 8, Wiesbaden 1981.

WADDEL L[awrence] Austine: Lhasa and its Mysteries, London 1905.

- The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism, Cambridge 1929 (2. Auflage).

WTCWC: Wu-t'i Ch'ing-wen chien (Quintolingual Dictionary compiled before 1794), translated and explained by TAMURA Jitsuzo, IMANISHI Shunju and SATO Hisashi, 2 vols., Kyoto 1968.

WTTC: HO-NING und SUNG-YÜN (1752-1835): Wei Tsang t'ung-chih, n.p. 1896=Chung-kuo pien-chiang ts'ung-shu 15, 2 Bde., Taipei 1966.

WWT 1938: [Anonymous:] Who's Who in Tibet, Calcutta (14.6.) 1938.

WWT 1945: [Hugh Edward RICHARDSON]: Who's Who in Tibet, Calcutta (10.3.) 1945.

YA Han-chang: Ta-lai la-ma chuan, Peking 1984

YA Hanzhang: The Biographies of the Dalai Lamas, Beijing 1991.

YA Hanzhang: Biographies of the Tibetan Spiritual Leaders Panchen Erdenis, Beijing 1994.

YAMAGUCHI Zuiho: Catalogue of the Toyo Bunko Collection of Tibetan Works on History, Classified Catalogue of the Toyo Bunko Collection of Tibetan Works, Bd. 1, Tokyo 1970.

YHK: CH'ANG Shao-ju et al. (comp.): Tsang-ch'uan fo-chiao ku-ssu Yung-ho kung, Peking 1996.

YKNZ 1901: Rai DARAT CHANDRA DAS, Bahadur (ed.): Yig bskur rnam gzhag Being a Collection of Letters, Both Official and Private, and Illustrating the Different Forms of Correspondence Used in Tibet, n.p. (Calcutta) 1901.

YKNZ 1956: G. THARCHIN (ed.): dPal lsan sa skyong mi dbang bshad sgra chen po mchog dang mi rje bka' drung nor nang ba mchog nas brtsams mdzad yig bskur rnam gzhag rgyas pa khag gnyis dang/ gzhan yang yig bskur thor bu sna tshogs/ bod kyi chos rgyal snga ba rnams dang gau shrì khang gi gdung rabs/ rgyal dbang sku 'phreng rim byon dang/ srid skyong rim pa'i khri lo/ shod drung las tshan gyi rim pa dang/ rdzong gzhis khag gi ming tho/ lha sa nas smad khams phyin gyi lam tho dang/ tham deb/ khrims yig zhal lca bcu gsum dang khrims 'degs ang grangs/ manydzu gong ma khri rabs/ 'bras ljongs rgyal rabs/ bod sing gnyis dang gor bod gnyis kyi chings yig sogs mdor bsdus phyogs bsgrigs deb ther 'dod 'jo'i gter mdzod/ Letter-Writers. Yik.bskur rnam-gshag by H.E. Kalon Shadra & Kadrung Nornang and Various Other Collections of Modern Letter-Writers. Short History of Ancient Kings, H.H. The Dalai Lamas & their Regents. The Thirteen Code Laws by Srongtsen Gampo, List of Seals and their Sizes as Used by Dalai Lamas & Regents, Kalimpong 1956. English translation of Chinese translation by LIU Liqian 1-58.

YKNZ 1990: O-RGYAN CHOS-'PHEL (ed.): bKa' drung nor rgyas nang pa dbang 'dus tshe ring gis phyogs bsdebs zhu 'phrin yig bskur sogs kyi rnam gzhag nyer mkho smyug 'dzin dbang po'i yid gsos dpyid kyi pho nya'i glu dbyangs, (probably completed at Lhasa in 1911) n.p. 1990, 2nd edition 1993.

YKNZ 1998: KARMA RGYAL-MTSHAN, ed. by dByangs-can lha-mo: Yig bskur rnam gzhag me tog phreng ba, n.p. (Ch'eng-tu) 1998.

ZHWA-SGAB-PA rtsis-pon dBang-phyug bde-ldan (1907/8-1989): Gangs ljongs bod chos srid gnyis ldan gyi rgyal khab chen po'i srid don gyi rgyal rabs gsal bar ston pa zla ba 'bum phrag 'char ba'i rdzing bu'am/ blo gsar bung ba dga' ba'i rol mtsho (Kurztitel: Bod kyi srid don rgyal rabs / "An Advanced Political History of Tibet" ), 2 Bände, Kalimpong 1976.

ZMLG: KONG-SPRUL Blo-gros mtha'-yas (1813-1899): *Zhwa-dmar lo-rgyus (1887/1888), in: ibid.: rGya chen bka' mdzod (Collected Writings of 'jam-mgon Kong-sprul Blo-gros-mtha'-yas), Paro 1975-1976, Bd. IX, 311-318.



1 To the following I am indebted for their generous help in sharing information and rare materials: André Alexander (Lhasa/Berlin; henceforth: AA), the late Dr Michael Aris (Oxford), dge-bshes Brag-g.yab che-tshang IX Blo-ldan shes-rab (Bonn; henceforth: BY), Dr. Isrun Engelhard (Icking), Ms Bianca Horlemann M.A. (Berlin), Ms Guilaine Mala M.A. (Oxford), Prof. Luciano Petech (Rome), Phu-khang mkhan-sprul I Byams-pa skal-bzang (Bonn; henceforth: PK), Mr. Hugh Edward Richardson (St. Andrews; henceforth: HR), and Mr Ellis Gene Smith (New York, as of 1998).

2 See MARKHAM I xcvi, cxiii, 264n.

3 Note that from at least 1796 until the first third of the nineteenth century there were only three "royal monasteries" (gling-gsum); see DL8, 588; SHABKAR 231, 240 n. 50. For a short note on gling-bzhi and sgang-bzhi see CHAB-SPEL 624 and TT8, 431.

4 This was the most important of the four monasteries. It was founded at an unknown date in the eighteenth century* by a certain Ngag-dbang dge-legs rgya-mtsho** (HTSH 445). For some notes see BELL 1931, 162f., 191, TGL and SCHÄFER 1949, 93.
Note that at an unknown date before 1781 bsTan-rgyas gling was also the Tibetan name of amonastic establishment in Inner Mongolia (JIG 14b, 20b=HEISSIG 1961, 116 no. 80).

* To our surprise the incarnate proprietor of bsTan-rgyas gling is mentioned in a document from as early as 1724 (BKYT 468).

** He may well be identical with Dri'u-lhas*** III. Ngag-dbang dge-legs rgya-mtsho (ca. 1730-1777) from Rab-brtan shar**** in Yar-klung; see his biographical entry in KPDZ 303. His incarnation was Dri'u-lhas IV. Blo-bzang 'jigs-med rgya-mtsho (DRNT I 337) and the monastery is mentioned from 1790 onwards (DRNT II 669 passim).

*** Monastery in the former district of Gri-gu (SYKC 266: Dre'u-lhas).

**** Probably identical with the place and family of the same name in the sNe-gdong District in Yar-(k)lung(s) (CTZZ 82, 85).

5 Also (b)rTse-mchog or Tshe-chog gling; in full Tshe-mchog bSam-gtan gling. This monastery is located in Grib*, south of Lhasa (FERRARI 96 n. 73; LGYC 1991, 187); in 1790, it was founded by the Eighth Dalai Lama (DL8, ; YSGT ) in "co-operation" with a certain *bka'-chen Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan** (HTSH 445). Probably identical with Yün-chih ssu*** not far from the Yamen of Klu-sbug.**** For detailed notes see BTLY 71b. Note that according to this reference the 'Du-khang contained 20 pillars***** . The monastery is in a surprisingly good condition (as of May 1999).

* For some notes on Grib under the year of 1790 in connection to the person mentioned under ** see YSGT 125a ff.

** He must be identical with Tshe[-mchog]-gling yongs-'dzin Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan (1713-1793); for more on his life and the foundation of the monastery see YSGT passim; SCHUH 1988, 17-29; GCMD 1568-1570; GJLG 775-777.

*** YTJC 10/21a. See also KARSTEN 2000 (London).

**** On Klu-sbug see KARSTEN 1983, 122 n. 35; RICHARDSON 1993, 31, 34, 37, 49, 53, 57, 76, 111, and KARSTEN 2000 (London).

***** It appears that the distance between two pillars amounted - at least in the monastery of sKu-'bum - about five meters (see KARSTEN 1997 I 52 n. 37aund 163); thus the hall may have measured one hundred square meters within the square made by the pillars.

6 Also: Tsho-smon, gTso-mo or Tsa-mo gling (FERRARI 41, 94 n. 68) and Tshe-smon gling (BGTD 2282); I must confess that I have been unable to trace the last two spellings. Nothing is known to me about this monastery apart from the note given in FERRARI.

7 For a similar case of a monastery bearing over a dozen different (ten Tibetan-language, five Chinese-language and four Mongol-language) names see my doctoral thesis on the monastery of sKu-'bum (KARSTEN 1997 I 252-259).

8. Apparently the first reference in "Western" literature can be found in DAS 1885, 135 ("Kunduling"); another rather early reference is made in ROCKHILL 1891 facing page 70. Note that in the early English-language works it is known as "Kontyaling"; see among many MARKHAM l, xcvi (?), cxiii, and 264 n. 1; pg. 130 n. 3 reads "Kenduling", instead.

9 "Kun-dbe" in MTH III/6, 2:3 appears to be a misprint for Kun-bde (gling).

10 MTH III/3 80; "Ku-bde-gling" in ROSSI FILIBECK 11 n. 55 is also a misprint. The contraction of Kun-bzang bde-chen 'od-gal gling to Kun-bde gling in VOHD XI/6, Nos. 26/2, 79, 97, 130, 134, 155, appears to be wrong and rather misleading. The same must be said of Kun-bzang bde-gling (op. cit. no. 175/16). The former is a hermitage near dPal-spung in Eastern Tibet, while the latter is a temple or monastery near Tsa-ri ("Tsà-'dra Rin-chen brag")* (loc. cit.).

* See also Prof. Petech in FERRARI XIX: hermitage of Rin-chen brag.

11 CTZZ passim.

12 KGNT 8a. Note that there also was a monastery 80 li west of Huhot called Kun-'dul gling (JIG 15b= HEISSIG 1961, xxiii n. 192 "(Seite 100):" instead of "K'uang-hua" read Kuang-hua).

13 Probably after WADDELL 1939, 253 n. 8; see also KARMAY 1998, 365; note that the monastery contained a Kun-'dus lha-khang (KDL 62).

14 KDL Document 89.

15 FERRARI 93 n. 66.

16 17BA 1093; KDL 55.

17 TT8, 437 (also quoted in LGRR III 349), 440; CHUNG 62.; LSWW 62f.

18 TT8, 437; to the best of my knowledge no reference is made in the Dalai Lama's hagiography (DL8).

19 KLCY passim.

20 KDL Documents 45+46.

21 TT8, 440.

22 MHTL 36:667; GCMD 732; SBKC (PK) II 295; SBKC (PTL) 503 bi; IsMEO 347:262; BA 1093.

23 GCMD 81.

24 TAUBE 1966 No 1717. Note that dGa'-ldan theg-chen bsod-nams kun-sdud gling is a monastery in Mongolia (reference!!!). Note further that lCang-lung pandi-ta Ngag-dbang blo-bzang bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan (1770-1845) authored a dkar-chag of this very place (SBKC I 511 no. 25; SBKC HN 578 no. 27).

25 TT8, 437.

26 On the latter temple and the identification of the god of war see WYLIE 157 n. 385 and KARSTEN 2000 (London). Note that the Tibetan equivalent of the Chinese name, Yün-ch'ang ("Long Cloud"), is sPrin-ring (STEIN 1959, 33, 90).

27 RICHARDSON 1974, 62f.

28ROCKHILL 1891, 278 n. 2; in 1937, it housed only 100 monks (CHAPMAN 1940, 253).

29 TT8, ..=LGRR III 349; KDL 54.

30 SYKC 226; LGRR III 371; STAG-LHA I 123.

31 STAG-LHA I 123.

32 HTTM 175; VERHUFEN 4.

33 "White Buddha" stands for Mongol cag an nom-un qan, the title of La-mo III (see next note); FCSY 464. Its Tibetan equivalent is *dKar-po chos-rje and, indeed, another incarnate lineage of La-mo bDe-chen is also known as dKar-po (KARSTEN 1997 II 140); I am, however uncertain about their relation.

34 Monastery in gCan-tsha* in A-mdo which was founded at an unknown date by La-mo III cag an nom-un qan Ngag-dbang blo-bzang bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan (1660-1728)**.

* Area west of Hsün-hua, south of Reb-kong and east of Khri-ka alias Kuei-te (FCSY 462; KARSTEN 1997 II 5 n. 37, 31 n. 69).

** For a biographical sketch see FCSY 463f.

35 See FCSY 426f.

36 Not to be confused with the Hui-an ssu of HEISSIG 1961, 116 no. 52.

37 HEISSIG 1961, xxii, 98,116.

38 Note that this very Chinese name was granted by the Ch'ien-lung emperor to the monastery known in Tibetan as bDe-chen gling and located somewhere in Manchuria or Mongolia (JIG 4a).

39 JIG 12a=HEISSIG 1961, 116 no. 68; note that the Manchu name was Bireme elhe obuha juktehen while the Mongol name was Qotala amurjig ulug ci süme (op. cit. xxiii).

40 Chinese ssu stands for Sanskrit vihâra; see GILES 1900, 286; SOOTHILL/HODOUS 212; HACKMANN 1951, 87; KARSTEN 1977 I 255 n. 23.

41 It is perhaps not out of place to note that in a polyglott dictionary of the late 18th century "Yung-an" is translated into Tibetan as rtag-skyid, i.e. "perpetual happiness" (WTCWC 35a/4711=17686).

42 WTTC 6/13bf.; YTJC 7/26a;9/25b;10/9b, 16a, 43b; SBKC (PK) II 296; SU 1996, 38; YHK 97. On Kun-bde gling see CHUNG 62-63, SU 1996, 38f., and FERRARI 93 n. 66; for a splendid colour photograph made, in 1949, by Heinrich Harrer see NORBU 1960 144-145 and NORBU 1961 130-131.

43 SATÔ 1978, 9.

44 KDL 55.

45 XZTK 8/13a. This event is to the best of my knowledge not mentioned in the Veritable Records of the Ch'ing dynasty (Ch'ing shih-lu); the entry may, of course, have excaped my attention.

46 RICHARDSON 1974, 61.

47 KDL 55.

48 Another Yung-an ssu was rebuilt, in 1703, in the area of Ulancab (HEISSIG 1961 xxiii n. 192, 93).

49 "Ch'i-" in PETECH 1988, 140 n. 101, must be a misprint.


51 PANDER 1889/: 3.205; PANDER 1890, 58 No 54; LMBI 98f. No 54.

52 YA 1991, 87.

53 HTCY 46b.

54 See among other ROSSI FILIBECK passim, especiall 8-40; DRNT and HAENISCH.

55 For a biographical sketch see ECCP 253-255.

56 For a biographical sketch see ECCP 273f.

57 For biographical sketches see TING 1943, 76-78=1948, 54-56; ECCP 691f.; STARY 1983, 1f. n. 2; VEIT 1990 I 85f.; KOLMAŠ 1994, 36 no. 65; and DABRINGHAUS "Teil Zwei".

58 "Lis" appears to transcribe the Chinese surname of Li, while "San" might represent his personal name. "San-tha-ye" remains unidentified, unless it is a corrupt transcription of Chinese *san ta-ye, for which I am unable to find any reference. Tibetan phogs-dpon corresponds to Chinese liang-t'ai.

59 KDL 53.

60 For some notes on the Kuan-ti miao see KARSTEN 2000.

61 KDL 53f.

62 WTTC 6/13b (cited without proper reference in CHUNG 62); GJLG 836; ZHWA-SGAB-PA I 660.

63 RICHARDSON 1974, 62f.

64 TT8, 434.

65 GCMD 732.

66 DL8, 585, 588.

67 CHANG 1982, 77.

68 MTFCS VII 6; TCCTL 699; CHAPMAN 1940, 205; the mentioned tablet measured six feet in width.

69 For some notes about his dates and career see KOLMAŠ 1994, 3f. no. 64, 37 no. 67.


71 RICHARDSON 1974, 61f. (Tibetan text with english translation); RICHARDSON 1998, 303. The Chinese original can be found in WTTC 6/14a and other works.

72 HTSH 445.

73 TPKC 552; CHMO 13, 38: -- she-dpon.

74 DLGS 71b=WYLIE 88, 165f. n. 473-476.

75 RICHARDSON 1982=RECHUNG 1993, 73; RICHARDSON 1987=RECHUNG 1993, 115 n. 12; 1998, 514.

76 KKNT 306a: 10.IV.? DRNT II 868, 873; RICHARDSON 1998, 424f.; for short biographical sketches of the 2nd to 24th abbots of Yangs-pa-can see KKNT 313a-338a.

77 ???

78 GKCB 962; GCMD 1493.

79 RICHARDSON 1998, 313, 358, 514 n. 12. For some information on this monastery that, in 1490,* was founded by Rin-spungs Don-yod rdo-rje (1463-1512)** alias Mus rab-'byams-pa Thugs-rje-dpal*** under the auspices of Zhwa-dmar IV Chos-kyi grags-pa ye-shes dpal-bzang's (1453-1524)**** see op. cit. 313, 425; FERRARI 160f. n. 620; WYLIE 150 n. 331; PETECH 1972, 98f. n. 7; GCMD 1493.

* According to DOUGLAS/WHITE 146 it was founded when Zhwa-dmar IV was fifty-one years old, i.e. in either 1503 or 1504.

** For a biographical sketch see GCMD 1613f.; and LGRR II .

*** For a biographical sketch see GCMD 795f.

**** For rather brief and partly useless English-language biographical sketches see Khenpo Chödrak Tenpel's The Seed of Faith, Rumtek 1980, 5 (without any datings!), and DOUGLAS/WHITE 145f.

80 VERHUFEN 263; according to RICHARDSON 1998, 730: lHo-rong ma-chu.

81 FERRARI 161.

82 HTTT 70.

83 <dPa'-*rong shod ? (HTTM 23); GDCB 318; PSBR 62. It is apparently identical with Pa-shod, Pag-shod and dPag-shod (SCHWIEGER/DAGYAB 272; TED 787; CARRASCO 139; MGLG 141). It is most certainly identical with dPag-shong (recte: -shod; GDCB 319).

84 On gNas-thang in dPa'-shong (recte: -shod) see GDCB 319.

85 PSBR 57.

86 GDCB 318; HTTT 65.

87 PSBR 62: 1801.

88 PSBR 58.

89 HTTT 72, 74.

90 BA 652; WYLIE 1962, 181 n. 607; HTTT 72, 74; SCHWIEGER?.

91 KPDZ 366f.; RBCLG 5.

92 The spelling as "rTag-tshag" in YKNZ 1956, 184, appears to be a misprint; other incorrect spellings are rTag-tshags (BTNY 6) and "sTag-tshag" (CLTWA II 165 no. 184).

93 It is not identical with sTag-tsha (TTCB 292) which appears to stand for sTag-rang-tsha (TTCB 302). Note that in an 18th-century Ch'ing-dynasty polyglott geographical dictionary it is transcribed in Mongol as "Dachag " (TWC 23/=1415b=3085).

94 TTCB 266.

95 For a (?auto-) biographical sketch see TTCB 845-848. Among his teachers were sTag-lung Byang-chub rgya-mtsho (1403-1448), Thil (=gDan-sa mThil?) spyan-snga bSod-nams rgyal-mtshan and rje Blo-bzang grags-pa (Tsong-kha-pa?! 1357-1419! loc. cit., and KASCHEWSKY 1971 passim). From their dates the dates of Tshe-dbang rgyal-po can be inferred as fl. 1419-1451. For more on his life see TLCB 395-408.

96 TTCB 845; cf. Preface 1 and MARTIN 1997, 69f. No 118, accordingly.

97 TLCB 655.

98 KDL Document 79: "Bha ri'i zhol".

99 FERRARI 92 n. 64: *sPar-ma ri, Bar-ma ri*, etc.; s. also CHAYET 37f. n. 6; KDL Document 79: Bha [*ma] ri. The Chinese name of this mountain - or rather hill - is Mopan Shan (CTJC 5/1a passim). According to HTPW 20b the temple was built at a location named Chiu-kung p'i (?-*gong-*'phel?).

*The spelling Bong-ba ri can also be found in TT8, 434, and KDL 53f.




103 DAS 1885, 156, 157, 162; MILC 33 No 129; CHAPMAN 1940, 211f.

104 Kuan-ti is the deification of Kuan-yü alias Yün-ch'ang (160-219), the famous Chinese general (see - among others - CY IV 3254). He was accorded several imperial honours, in 1102, 1123 and 1605, and deified in 1594. See KLOSE-WANG/XING 40; VERELLEN 787f. and MZDZD 236. He is identical with Kuan-sheng ti-chün of XZJ 30a. For more on the cult see MOORE 109f.

105 WADDEL 1905 facing 331 no 9.

106 MHTL 20:5.

107 For some material on this temple see KARSTEN 2000 (London).

108 TT8, 437. This short description is cited in LGRR III 349.

109 TAUBE 1966 No 1717.

110 Document XVIII (1809) in MTH III/5, 139-141; GJKC 19b.

111 BTLY 67a. It is probably identical with the "large and richly furnished room which was kept for the use of the incarnate lama .." (CHAPMAN 1940, 205).

112 CHAN 169f.

113 KDL 53.

114 KDL 53.

115 Note that the stupas of the 7th and 11th incarnations are housed in the monastery of dPa'-shod. (HTTT 65).

116 CHAN 169f.

117 CHAPMAN 1940, 205 u.a.; for more notes see KARSTEN (London)2000.

118 LANDON 346.

119 DAGYAB 1980,12 n. 1.


121 TT8, 434.

122 TT8, 434.

123 CHAN .


125 In a Mongol text from the 1690s mention is made of rJe-drung qutuqtu as Jirüng qutuqtu (see HEISSIG 1944, 120-124; SAGASTER 1967, 122 n. 214). In two documents (bka'-yig) dated 1.XII.1690 and 24.I.1691 the then incarnation is referred to as rje-drung sku-skye (BKYT 95f.) and rje-drung sprul-sku (BKYT 98) erwähnt. According to RICHARDSON 1974, 33, the Eighth Dalai Lama had two brothers who both bore the title of rje-drung (rje-drung gnyis) and were, therefore, confused with rTa-tshag VIII. From my reading of the contemporary Tibetan and Chinese texts this does not appear to be the case. One of the brothers is lHa-klu Blo-bzang rdo-rje (d. 1791)* while the other was his half-brother or cousin, lHa-klu Blo-bzang dge-'dun grags-pa (d. 1792).**
Another eccllesiast was sPel-rkyang rje-drung Blo-bzang skal-bzang who, under the year of 1780, is mentioned in connection with the Third Pan-chen (PC3, 108a=LOO 106; note that Dr Loo has failed to recognize sPel-rkyang as a name, 207).
Members of another lineage known as Ri-bo-che rJe-drung sprul-sku are dealt with in JDLG 207ff., 223, 229. The rJe-drung lineage is as follows:
I mTsho-skyes rdo-rje 'byung-gnas (1530-)
III Grags-pa legs-grub (fl. 1723-)
V Rin-chen legs-grub
VI Grags-pa rgya-mtsho (d. 1877?)
VII Ngag-dbang grags-pa 'Phrin-las byams-pa'i 'byung-gnas (1878-1935?)
I wonder where the lineage listed in TWC 23/8ff. belongs to.
* For a biographical sketch see PETECH 1973, 40.
** For a biographical sketch see PETECH 1973, 41f.

126 STAG-LHA I 125. This title has been known in Europe, from 1780 on, through a reference in Joseph-Anne-Marie de Moyriac de Mailla's Histoire générale de la Chine, ou Annales de cet empire, vol. XI, Paris 1780, 260: "koutouctou Tsinong".

127 ROCKHILL 1891, 9 n. 1; JLCT 230 n. 2. See also PETECH 1988, 140 n. 101. Ya Han-chang in his monograph on the Dalai Lamas (YA 1991, 80, 82, 87, 88; LGYT 1995, 50:18/28) refers to him as "Kyirong* Hutuktu". The latter is not to be confused with the rje-drung bla-ma ("Jedrung Lama") of bKra-shis lhun-po (YA 68, 71; for more on him see RICHARDSON 1974, 49). He appears to be identical to *rje-drung who, under the year of 1792, is mentioned as a disciple of Zhwa-dmar-pa (WTTC 13 chung 37b-38a).

* This is a rather dangerous transcription, as both YA 68 passim and also LGYT 1995 passim employ the transcription for the palce of sKyid-rong in the Western part of Tibet.

128 LIU 15, 46 n. 56

129 DL10, 86; YA 1984, 56=YA 1991, 66; YHK 97.

130 YKNZ 1956, 192.

131 Nur in RRCB 363; GDCB 321 n. 17.

132 YKNZ 1998, 332.

133 DL5d102a=AHMAD 1999, 174.

134 On this important incarnate lineage see DAGYAB 1980 and SCHWIEGER/DAGYAB.

135 On some aspects of the system of incarnation see EVERDING.

136 This list is based on: ATCC 294 n. 1; CHANG 1982, 8f, 76ff.; CHUNG 62f.; GBMG 22a; GCMD 726ff.; GJLG passim; KARSTEN 1997 I 65 n. 1; KPDZ 284-286; PETECH 1973, 230; PSBR 61-64; TTSLC X 152ff.; TTKR 28-45; TWC 23/1, 11b-13a/1414b-1415b=3083-3085; YHK 96f.

137 This name is still used as some kind of surname, as is the case with Ba-so Thub-bstan chos-rgyal in CHMO 14/5, 236-242.

138 For biographical sketches of this brother (?) of mkhas-grub rje dGe-legs dpal-bzang (1385-1438) siehe LRNT 462a-465b; RRCB 364; TTKR 30f.; BDTB V/1, 224-229; GCMD 1078f., GJLG 502f. and TTKP 2f.; for reference in an 18th-century Chinese geo-biographical dictionary see TWC 1414b.

139 TTKP 4 dates 1508 which date would make lHa-skyabs 34 years of age.

140 He was a nephew of 'Phags-pa-lha I (1439-1487); see RRCB 364, KPDZ 285 and TTKP 3f. For a modern hagiography of the latter see CHMO 18, 1-7.

141 TTKR 31; RRCB 364f.; KPDZ 285; TTKP 4f.

142 Note that that RRCB 365 writes "rgyal-po" instead of rgyal-mtshan.

143 For biographical sketches see RRCB 365f.; TTKR 32f.; GCMD 1080f.; GJLG 614f., SBKC (PTL) 200ff. and TTKP 5f.

144 For biographical sketches see RRCB 366f.; TTKR 33f.; GCMD 1077f.; GJLG 654f., SBKC (PTL) 210-212 and TTKP 6f. According to RRCB 366 and TTKR 33 he was a member of the sPun-drug rdzong-pa alias "bShad-gra 'go-pa" (recte: bShad-sgra 'og-pa?); on this important noble house see SGLG (CHMO 4/14) 1-225, and PETECH 1973, 159-185.

145 He is referred to as "Bar-khams rTa-tshag rje-drung" under the year of 1693 (CDKC 894, 900). For biographical sketches see RRCB 367-370; TTKR 34f.; GCMD 726-728; GJLG 710-712; SBKC (PTL) 258f.; PSBR 60, 61f.; TTKP 7-10. He is also mentioned in SCHWIEGER/DAGYAB 79 and GDCB 318 ("rje-drung rin-po-che") and appears to be identical with the "Tsirong" qutuqtu in KOEPPEN 1859=1906 II 187. Note that transliterations of six imperial edicts issued, in 1703, by the K'ang-hsi emperor to rTa-tshag are published in BKYT 282-286. A nephew of his is mentioned in DL5d166b=AHMAD 1999, 285.

146 RRCB 371.

147 Siehe PANDER 1890, 58 No 54 und LMBI 98f. No 54.

148 CK2, 167; RRCB 370-375; TTKR 35f.; YHK 96f.; PSBR 60, 62; TTKP 10-12. He was a brother of the following: Glang-ram-pa (RRCB 372), 'Phags-pa-lha VI 'Phags-pa 'jigs-med bstan-pa'i rgya-mtsho (1711-1754)*, and the khri-'dzin of Rag-ra dKon-mchog (RRCB 371). His death is mentioned somewhat incoherently in SMITH 1969, 8; a "portrait" of his was published in PANDER 1890, 58 No 54; BIOT II 702 no. 2257(54); LMBI 98f. No 54.

* For a modern hagiography see CHMO 9/18, 52--69.

149 See PANDER 1890, 58 No 54, LMBI 98f. No 54, and BIOT II 702 no. 2257(54).

150 See YKNZ 1956, 196f.; GOLDSTEIN 1968, 165ff.; PETECH 1973, 230.

151 Note that GCMD 732 numbers as no 6, instead, while GOLDSTEIN 1973, 448, numbers "Kundeling I".

152 HTLSNP 13 refers to him under the name of Thub-bstan mgon-po, instead.

153 Unidentified.

154 On the history of the monastery of dPa'-shod see BLO-BZANG CHOS-'PHEL 46-64.

155 The (complete?) text of the diploma can be found in TT8, 401f.

156 He does not appear identical to dza-sag bla-ma dPal-ldan grags-pa (fl. 1771-1773; TT8, 404, 407). Instead, he seems identical to the yongs-'dzin mkhan-chen who died in 1778 (TT8, 408). SBKC (PK) II 294 mentions the latter as dPal-ldan snyan-grags. The former is apparently not identical to mkhan-chen dPal-ldan grags-pa whose relic-stupa is mentioned in the middle of the 18th century (? PSBR 62).

157 For a biographical sketch see KARSTEN 1997 II 137f.

158 The former is surprisingly neither mentioned in the latter's hagiography (JD4) nor in the lists of the dgon-bdag of dGa'-ldan Monastery (BKLG 177f., RNLG 184, ROSSI FILIBECK and KASCHEWSKY).

159 For more see KARSTEN 2000 (London).

160 This visit is also mentioned in CK2A, 110a-b=KÄMPFE 1976, 49f.

161 Unidentified.

162 JZ2, .

163 KDNT; TT8, .

164 SMITH 1969, "Appendix I" 1; CK2A, 110a-b=KÄMPFE 1976, 49f.

165 CK2, 609.

166 TTKP 13 locates as Chu-dmar Rab-bdun kha, instead.

167 ROSSI FILIBECK 11 n. 55.

168 The Tibetan text of the document of confernment can be found in TT8, 419f., while the event itself is described in CLSL 132/1b.

169 Note that in an undated writing issued to the Amban he refers to himself as khur-'dzin zhwa-ser bstan-pa 'dzin-byed rje-drung ho-thog-thu (LGYT 1995, 51).

170 PETECH 1988, 139.

171 Village in the former district of Ri-bo-che, c. 45 miles west-northwest of Chab-mdo (WYLIE 181 n. 605; HTTM 202; VERHUFEN 62).

172 =A-thang (DL10, 58)?

173 PETECH 1988, 139f.; DL9, 18b: "dpal-ldan bla-ma dam-pa rgyal-tshab no-min han chen-po"; 24b: "rgyal-tshab no-min han sa-ma-ti pakshi rin-po-che"; 33a: "rgyal-tshab"; 116b: "rgyal-tshab no-min han chen-po", etc.

174 Memorandum dated 3rd month 1792 in WTTC 13 shang 29b-30a.

175 The (complete?) Tibetan text of the document of confernment can be found in TT8, 428-430.

176 For more on his career see PETECH 1973, 197; he happens to be an ancestor of lHa-sdings sras sKal*-bzang nyi-ma (fl. 1880s) who was the father-in-law of mThu- stobs rnam-rgyal of Sikkim (r. 1874-1914); see DAS 1915 Appendix II 2.
"bsKal-" in PETECH 1973, 198 is a mistake occuring throughout op. cit. (see also "Index" p. 258). It should be borne in mind that from the recognition of the Seventh Dalai Lama, bsKal-bzang rgya-mtsho (1708-1757), the spelling as "bsKal-" became taboo - such as happened to the personal names of the Chinese emperors.

177 PC4, 102a=PETECH 1973, 197. Note that this visit is not mentioned in Ya's work on the Pa.n-chen.

178 TTKP 14.

179 GZMR 1029=TPC 540.

180 RICHARDSON 1974, 81.

181 DL9, 116b-117a; LBMB 19=LBMB 1991, 22; and others.

182 Note that only YHK 97 correctly dates as 1811.

183 TT8 passim; DL8, 533-625, esp. 576, 587; DRNT II 810; DL9, 24b, 25a, 32a; KPDZ 285f.; SYKC 68f., 136; KYCH 7/18a; FSYL 8; PC4, 102a; TCHT 737/16a; KKCL* 20/1aff.; CHANG 1982, 77; CSK III 552=TSSLC IV 39; GJLG 835f.; GCMD 730-732; SBKC (PK) II 294-296; PETECH 1959=1988, 139f.; PSBR 62-64; SBKC (PTL) 504; ZHWA-SGAB-PA I 660, 672f.; TCCTL 698f.; MTH III/5, 129ff.; YHK 97; HO/TOU 860; TTKP 12-15.

* ROCKHILL 1910, 56 n.1.

184 For more on him see KOLMAŠ 1994, 35 No 63.

185 DABRINGHAUS 162 according to WTTC 1795/1982, 384.

186 For lists of his works see SBKC (PK) II 285-293 and MHTL, 34ff.

187 See also KDL 55.

188 RRCB 375 and TTKR 37 refer to him under the name of sGrol-mgon.

189 TTKR 37.

190 =Tsha-ba sgang

191 RRCB 376; DL9?

192 For a biographical sketch see PETECH 1988, 141.

193 RRCB 375f.

194 DL10, 86; 117, 121.

195 TKSL 8/23a.

196 TTKP 16; cf YHK 97.

197 TTKP 16.

198 DL11, 327f.

199 CHANG 1982, 77; DL11, 337, 355, 446; YHK 97.

200 PSBR 60.

201 RRCB 375f.; KPDZ 286; DL8 passim; DL11, 349, 355; FSYL 9; LBMB 1991, 66; TTKR 37; CHANG 1982, 77; GCMD 729f.; GJLG 906f.; TTKP 15f.

202 HTLSNP 13 refers to him under the name of Ngag-ming dpal-grub chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan.

203 See also TAUBE 1966 No. 1717; "Kirung (?)" [=rje-drung] qutuqtu Chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan according to SCHULEMANN 1958, 365.

204 GOLDSTEIN 1973, 448.

205 SBKC (PTL) 842.

206 TCCTL 706.

207 "1866" in SHAKABPA 194 must be a misprint.

208 Probably identical with bKra-shis rtse in gSar-nang, Yar-lung (CTZZ 83); see also TTKR 38.

209 Phu-khang???

210 Probably a member of the noble house of sNa(ng)-dkar rtse and, therefore, distant relative of the Fifth Dalai Lama; the latter's mother had been a princess of sNang-dkar rtse.

211 For biographical sketches see PETECH 1959=1988, 142f.; GCMD 1642f., SRCB 428-430, and RGKC 211f.

212 Unidentified.

213 rGyal-sras was born, in 1812, at the border of Nag-shod and dPa'-shod as the son of a certain dBang-rgyal and originally bore the name of rDo-rje. The young incarnation was decided by casting lots on the 3rd day of the 11th month 1813 and named Ngag-dbang blo-bzang thogs-med bstan-'dzin rgya-mtsho (KPDZ 287). According to an entry in the Veritable Records of the Hsien-feng emperor, dated 16th September 1854, he was appointed tutor of the Dalai Lama (HFSL 140/10b; DL). He withdrew from this position on account of bad health in 1863 (TCSL 48/28b: 27th December 1863).


215 For biographical sketches see GCMD 1058f. and GJLG 924-926.

216 The imperial letter of appointment dates 10th August 1879 (see PETECH 1988, 145 n. 134).

217 YA 1994, 210.

218 GXSL 97/10b; TLPC 343.

219 GXSL 145/6a.

220 Also in 1875, he had asked the Fifth Pa&-chen to compile a prayer for longevity of the still undiscovered Thirteenth Dalai Lama (YAMAGUCHI 1970, 79f. No. 134-1988-6) "1975" in RNLG 85:28 is, of course, merely a misprint.

221 DL11, 707, 711; DL12, 644; TLPC 343ff.; LBMB 1991, 30; GCMD 728f.; GJLG 945-947; TCCTL 706f.; MTH III/5, 283; DAS 1885, ; SANDBERG 682f.; VOHD XI/8, No 179: instead of "rTa-tshag" read: rTa-chag (mistake due to a confusion of two different transliteration systems); note that he is not listed in the "Index" p. 365a; ROCKHILL 1910, 73 n. 1 according to the Peking Gazette dated 8th May and 29th August 1879; REBT 8, 31; YHK 97; HO/TOU 859.

222 CHANG 1982, 77.

223 He may well be a brother or cousin of lCags-shar-ba rNam-rgyal rdo-rje (b. 1896) who, in 1924, was rdzong-sdod of 'Ol-dga' (Ð BR 1.31=PETECH 1973, 246).

224 This piece of information is doubtful, as the chu-byi-year does not correspond to 1892, but only to 1912.

225 MTH III/6, 130.

226 TSYBIKOV 102.

227 KDL Document 22+23; BELL 1946, 223; HOR-KHANG 1986, 229.

228 Note that in my doctoral thesis (KARSTEN 1997 II 224f. n. 18) due to the anglicized transcription as "Taktsa"* I have confound our rTa-tshag with the elder brother of the Dalai Lama, sTag-mtsher VI Thub-bstan 'jigs-med nor-bu (b. 1922).**

* See WWT 1938, 43; KAULBACK 1938, 234; WWT 1945, 41; and RICHARDSON 1993, 50f., 132.

** For his autobiography see NORBU/HARRER; for a biographical sketch based on the latter work see KARSTEN 1997 II 224-228.

229 WWT 1938, 34 dates 1923, whereas on page 65 the year of 1928 is given, probably due to the similarity between 3 and 8. Note that WWT 1945, 41, dates as early as "1918" and that KAULBACK 1938, 234, states that, in 1935, rTa-tshag "XIII" was thirteen – or twelve (more tibetico?) years of age.

230 According to BY, in 1954, he was in his (late) thirties.

231 'Bras-spungs (WWT 1938, 34).

232 dGa'-ldan (WWT 1938, 65; RICHARDSON 1993, 50; TTKR 41-43).

233 CHAPMAN 1940, 78, 205.

234 For a biographical sketch of the oracle see WWT 1938, 51f.

235 RICHARDSON 1993, 50. For biographical sketches see loc. cit. 49ff.; WWT 1938, 51f.; WWT 1945, .

236 WWT 1945, 41.

237 TARING 193, 206, 264, 266.

238 ROCKHILL 1891, 9f.

239 YA 1991, 80; LGYT 1995, 50:18; DABRINGHAUS 1994, 182, 192.

240 For a biographical sketch see PETECH 1988, 141f.

241 CHMO 13, 63.

242 GCMD 731; SBKC (PK) II 294.

243 I am at present unable to say whether Kun-bde gling like the monastery of bsTan-rgyas gling (DL10, 160 [1823], 221 [1830]) had its own dza-sag bla-ma*. It is, however, very likely, as the four "royal" monasteries appear to have had a similar organization.

244 According to SCHULEMANN 1958, 312, 365, dza-sag was the title of the phyag-mdzod, for which see below.

* That Daß Kun-bde gling had a dza-sag bla-ma is shown in ROCKHILL 1910, 51 (see below.).

245 KDL 68.

246 Dza-sag does not stand for tea-strainer as is explained in SCHULEMANN 1958, 312, apparently following DAS 1902. William Woodhill Rockhill in his notes to DAS 1904, 230, correctly disputes this explanation and incorrectly identifies it as rgyal-tshab, i.e. viceroy. In ROCKHILL 1910, 51 n.1, dza-sag tà bla-ma is correctly identified as a title. The title was properly identified by Prof. Petech in T'oung Pao 1958/1959, … To the best of my knowledge this title was granted, in 1789, to rTa-tshag VIII in connection with his appointment as advisor in Nepalese affairs.

246 <Mongol darqan, i.e. highest title among the Mongols (BGTD 1253).

247 WWT 1938, 65.

248 CHAN 169f.

249 On the identification of this title one is surprised to read in an important work on the administration of the bla-brang of Brag-g.yab that the identification of the title of Tchagtchouba poses difficulties hardly to be overcome (Dagyab 1980, 16 n. 12). As it is, the transcription represents nothing else but phyag-mdzod-pa, a title of the Brag-g.yabs spyi-mdzod. Note that, as early as 1859, Carl Friedrich Koeppen has explained the title somewhat arbitrarily as "Steuerdirector" (KOEPPEN 1859=1906 II 197 n. 1).

250 RRCB 376; ROCKHILL 1910, 72; DAS 190(2?), 183; SCHULEMANN 1958, 365.

251 The phyag-mdzod Ngag-dbang dar-rgyas referred to, under the year of 1760 (RRCB 374), appears to be a predecessor of the phyag-mdzod of Kun-bde gling.

252 TT8, 407; KDL Document 124.

253 KDL Document 124.

254 TT8, 417.

255 TT8, 440, 441.

256 TT8, 441.

257 YAMAGUCHI 1970, 84-87, 93.

258 PSBR 62f.

259 TT8, 454; NTGM 21b.

260 PSBR 62.

261 TT8, 454; RRCB 376.

262 RRCB 376; NTGM 21b.

263 KDL Document 4/8 (=K 38).

264 TT8, 417, 441.

265 KDL 4 (012 1-1 4).

266 "Sang" appears to be Tibeto-Mongol sang, i.e. "Living Buddha's treasury"; see MILLER 1959, 87 n. 4.

267 TT8, 417.

268 TT8, 454.

269 DL9, 55b.

270 TT8, 417.

271 TT8, 417.

272 DL9, 55b.

273 <Mongol jayisang, i.e.

274 DL13 I=TLPC 346.

275 KDL Document (NN) "457".

276 KDL Document 19.

277 KDL Docs. 91, 92, 93, 95, 96,98, 99.

278 DL13 I=TLPC 346.

279 KDL Document 32.

280 TLPC 346.

281 The existence of this hitherto unmentioned office is made possible by comparing Kun-bde gling with its "colleague", the monastery of Tshe-smon gling: Under the year of 1822, reference is made to a slob-zur rab-'byams-pa Blo-bzang yon-tan (DL 10, 149).

282 SYKC 235.

283 SYKC 235.

284 For a note on this term see KARSTEN 1997 I 207 n. 3.

285 Slightly changed quote from KARSTEN 1997 I 209f.

286 CTZZ 173, 177; cf. KDL Document (NG) 1755.

287 KDL Document 215.

288 CTZZ 173, 177.

289 CTZZ 173, 177.

290 CTZZ 173, 177.

291 TED 787; CARRASCO 139 according to the latter source: ", an estate of the incarnate lama of Kun-bde-gling monastery in Lhasa."

292 DL11, 360.

293 WWT 1938, 34; BELL 1946, 223, 227, 283, 335. For more on the residence and garden as of the mid-1930s see CHAPMAN 1940 passim (Index) and KDL 63. Whether it is connected to bDe-skyid* gling-pa mentioned under the year of 1860 (DL11, 515) is not certain and may have to be rejected (see KDL Document 112). The name does not appear to have anything to do with the family mentioned in PETECH 1973, 110. For more on bDe-skyid gling-kha see also SO-LANG WANG-TUI [bSod-nams dbang-'dus]: Ch'iung-chieh hsien wen-wu chi, n.p. (Lhasa) 1986, 123f.: "Te-chi lin-k.'a" I wonder whether there is any connection to bDe-skyid gling mentioned in SYKC 266.

* SURKHANG 1999 rather surprising spells as "bDe-dge" which look much more like a misprint for sDe-dge.

294 BELL 1946, 223.

295 BELL 1946, 223.

296 KDL 63.

297 LBMB 20 writes sGo-mang, instead, while PETECH 1988, 139, reads lHag-sgo. YKNZ 1956, 183. LIU 16 transcribes as "Dagu", instead. Note that lTag-sgo is located in Glang-thang in KDL Document (NG) 1636.

298 PETECH 1988, 139.

299 Thung-si generally transcribes Chinese t'ung-shih, i.e. Interpreter-clerk (see HUCKER no. 7503).

300 CTZZ 13.

301 CTZZ 13.

302 CTZZ 19; KDL Document 215; 102/2-1/53/29; (NG) 1503.

303 Name of an old part or building in Zhol below the Potala (LCB 51b; DL12, 628, 629); there used to be also a garden in Lhasa known as Tsha-gur gling-ka (SPLG 29; ZHWASGABPA 1976 II 218). Whether it is identical to Tshag-sgur (GDCB 161) mentioned under the year of about 1690 or has any connection to the local noble house of Tsha-sgur zhags-pa (SYKC 266; KDL Document (NG) 1685) is impossible to decide. It could very well be connected to "Tshakhur" of the 1940s (see RADHU 168).

304 KDL Document (NG) "1514".

305 CTZZ 392.

306 For a biographical sketch see PETECH 1973, 113f.

307 For a short note on his career see PETECH 1973, 197.

308 PETECH 1973, 114, 197 according to DL11, 85b ff. [=358ff.].

309 O-thog appears to be of Mongol origin: otog , i.e. tribe, race, clan, term for a lower administrative unit. The following references to similar names are known to me: Or-tog in rDza-chu kha (GJLG 924), O-tog in Nag-chu kha (YDNT 9a-10a); I am unable to locate both O-tog (DL8, 35b, 39b;533) and O-thog (SGDT II 152a). See also KARSTEN 1997 II 1 n. 11.

310 NCLG 19.

311 TTSH 133: 1. chia 2.

312 KDL Document (MG) 1503.

313 Both estates are mentioned as sKyer gzhis gong 'og, under the year of c. 1854 (SYKC 259), and, in an undated (probably 1876) document from Kun-bde gling we find sKyer gzhis and sKyer-'og (KDL Document 77).

314 KDL Document 215.

315 CTZZ 173, 177.

316 KDL Document 215.

317 CTZZ 173, 177.

318 KARMAY 1998, 365 n. 142, according to DL13 II 232b.

319 RICHARDSON 1993, 62.

320 KAULBACK 1938, 234.

321 MTH III/6, 2:3.

322 KDL Document 78 (3-2/44/4).

323 CTZZ 142, 145.

324 CTZZ 142, 145.

325 KDL Document (NG) 1808.

326 CTZZ 185.

327 CTZZ 185.

328 KDL Document 215.

329 KDL Document 74 (2-1/113/2).

330 KDL Document 74 (2-1/113/2).

331 CTZZ 188.

332 KDL Document 215.

333 KDL Document 75 (2-1/77/2)

334 KDL Document 75 (2-1/77/2)

335 KDL Document 215.

336 KDL Document 215.

337 KDL Document 75 (2-1/77/2)

338 KDL Document 75 (2-1/77/2); KDL Document 215.

339 KDL Document 215.

340 KDL Document 215.

341 KDL Document 215.

342 KDL Document 1-1/2/37/7; 1-1/2/60/3; cf. KDL Document (NG) 1812 dated lcags-spre, i.e. 1800 or 1860.

343 Various KDL documents such as (NG) 1620: rTa-rkyang.

344 KDL Document 215.

345 KDL Document 215.

346 KDL Document 215.

347 DAS 1884, 15.

348 MTH III/5, 131-168; MTH III/6 174: "Findbuch" 113.

349 BKYT 282.

350 BKYT 283.

351 BKYT 283.

352 BKYT 284.

353 BKYT 284.

354 BKYT 284.

355 SBKC (PTL) 709 (8), 841 (ja).

356 SBKC (PTL) 502 (na).

357 SBKC (PTL) 719 (17).

358 SBKC (PTL) 503 (ni).

359 SBKC (PTL) 842 (tha).

360 SBKC (PTL) 841 (nya).

361 SBKC (PTL) 842 (ta).

362 SBKC (PTL) 710 (22).

363 SBKC (PTL) 710 (24).

364 SBKC (PTL) 842 (da).

365 SBKC (PTL) 709 (12).

366 SBKC (PTL) 710 (21).

367 ROERICH 1949 (=BA) ii ; FERRARI 161 n. 620; MARTIN 78 No 141.

368 NTGM 21b; apparently identical to rTa-tshag lHun-'grub bde-chen gling (TTKR 37).

369 KDL 57.

370 GJKC 19b. Lists of his Collected Works can be found in SBKC (PTL) 402ff.; SBKC (PK) I.

371 GJKC 19b; ROERICH 1949, ii; BA 1093.

372 GJKC 19b.

373 GJKC 19b.

374 GJKC 20a.

375 GJKC 20a.

376 GJKC 20a; SMITH Reel Bl-9.

377 GJKC 20a.

378 This is identical to the dGag lan chu yi 'phrul 'khor written in 1936 (GCMD 419).

379 For a biographical sketch see GCMD 418-420. He was tutor to the dge-bshes of 'Bras-spungs, Shes-rab rgya-mtsho from Klu-'bum,* the incarnation (mchog-sprul) of a certain 'Jigs-med bsam-gtan** from A-mdo (GJKC 20a).

* He must be identical to rDo-sbis Shes-rab rgya-mtsho (1884-1968); see GCMD 901-903, GJLG 1001f., PHUN-TSHOGS 1-36 und STODDARD in TS.

** Dieser ist vielleicht mit 'Jigs-med bsam-gtan (1814-1897) aus Reb-kong identisch (GCMD 650f.).

380 GJKC 19b.

381 GJKC 20a.

382 GJKC 20a.

383 GJKC 20a.

384 GJKC 20a.

385 VOHD XI, 8: No 196.

386 VOHD XI, 8: No 250.

387 VOHD XI, 8: No 252.

388 Für eine biographische Skizze siehe GCMD 739f.

389 MHTL 18 No 1.

390 KDL Document 158.

391 YTJC 10/43b and 11/20a; KDL Document 115.

392 SYKC 235.

393 TT8, 417, 441.

394 TT8, 417, 441.

395 GDCB 318.

396 KDL Document 158.

397 DL13 I=TLPC 345.

398 GDCB 318.

399 GDCB 318.

400 KDL 56.

401 SYKC 235.

402 GDCB 318.

403 KDL Docs. 91, 92, 93, 95, 96,98, 99.

404 GDCB 318.

405 GDCB 318.

406 GDCB 318.

407 GDCB 318.

408 GDCB 318.

409 GDCB 318.

410 GDCB 318.

411 KDL Document "457".

412 TT8, 400-403; LIU 47.

413 KDL Document 217.

414 RRCB 376.

415 TARING 1970, 193, 206, 284, 266; TPKC 520.

416 GDCB 318.

417 TT8, 403.

418 TT8, 408.

419 KDL Document 6/7 (=K 55).

420 KDL Document 4/8 (=K 38).

421 GDCB 318.

422 GDCB 318.

423 PSBR 56f.

424 PSBR 64.

425 RRCB 371.

426 PSBR 64.

427 PSBR 56f.

428 PSBR 64.

429 PSBR 64.

430 PSBR 62.

431 KDL Document 218.

432 GDCB 318.

433 KDL Document "1514".

434 GDCB 318.

435 GDCB 318.

436 GDCB 318.

437 GDCB 318.

438 GDCB 318.

439 KDL Document 122, 150.

440 PSBR 56.

441 KDL Doc 131.

442 Dieser war siebzehn Jahre zuvor ebenfalls in Tsh(w)-gur geboren als Sohn eines Beamten des Dreizehnten Dalai Lama (MTFSC V 63). Zu einigen Aspekten seines Lebens siehe seine "Geheime Biographie" in BERGER/BARTHOLOMEW 307-309 (tibet.) bzw. 134-137 (engl.). Für eine äußerst kurze und unzulängliche biographische Skizze siehe auch KARSTEN 1997 II 134f. und vor allem die dort gegebenen Literaturangaben. Eine eigene Studie zu dieser Persönlichkeit ist unbedingt notwendig.

443 CHAPMAN 1940, 78.

444 CHAPMAN 1940, 204.

445 WWT 1945, 22, 41.

446 KDL Document 47.

447 PSBR 57.

448 GDCB 318.

449 GDCB 318.

450 GDCB 318.

451 RRCB 376.

452 GDCB 318.

453 PSBR 62f. See KDL Document 123 and perhaps also KDL Document "64".

454 KDL Document 123.

455 SBKC (PK) II 289 (37); MHTL 36. Not listed in the other lists.

456 On the history of this rather important Sino-Tibetan building see KARSTEN 2000 (London).

457 SBKC (PK) II 292 (34). Not listed in the other lists.

458 SBKC (PK) II 292 (34). Not listed in the other lists.

459 Listet in MHTL 34-36; SBKC (PK) II 286 Ka 13 und SBKC (PTL) 502 I na; referred to in KDL 63, 67, 69.

460 IsMEO 347 No 262: dBus gtsang kun bde gling gi dge 'dun pa rnams kyi zhal don ..
SBKC (PK) II 289 (33): dBus gtsang kun bde gling gi dge 'dun pa rnams kyi zhal 'don gsung chog phyag len sogs ji ltar bya ba'i rim pa rnams rgyud dang man ngag gi dgong don bzhin bkod pa 'khrul bral nor bu'i me long.
SBKC (PTL) 503 II bi: dBus gtsang kun bde gling gi dge 'dun pa rnams kyi zhal 'don gsung chog sogs kyi skor 'khrul bral nor bu'i me long.
MHTL 36:701: Kun bde gling gi dge 'dun rnams kyi zhal 'don gsung chog sogs kyi skor 'khrul bral nor bu'i me long.
Note another bca'yig by the same author listed in SBKC (PTL) 502 I na: dBus gtsang kun bde gling gi bca' yig zin bris.

461 TCTB 253; not found in the other lists.

462 SBKC (PK) II 292 (33). Not listed in the other lists.

463 TPKC 133; BGTD ..

464 MTH III/5, 129, 133-136.

465 Unidentified.

466 In 1830, the Legs-pa gling-pa were local nobles (sger-pa) in Gra-phyi (CTZZ 202; SYKC?).

467 bSGLG 9.

468 MTH III/5, 131, 149-150, 168.

469 MTH III/5, 131, 137-139.

470 MTH III/3, 80.

471 MTH III/5, 131, 139-141.

472 MTH III/5 Document XVIII; MTH III/6, 174 "Findbuch" 113.

473 MTH III/5, 131, 142-143.

474 MTH III/5, 131, 144-149.

475 MTH III/6, 187: 335.

476 WTTC 13 shang 29b-30a.

477 LGYC 1991, 244: rje-drung ho-thog-thu.

478 LGYC 1991, 124.

479 LGYC 168f.

480 LGYC 1991, 185f.

481 LGYC 1991, 232-235.

482 See the following memoranda:

  1. Undated memorandum (WTTC 13 chung 17a-b)
  2. Undated memorandum (WTTC 13 chung 36a-b)
  3. Memorandum dated 6 VIII 1792 about the monastery ofYangs-pa-can (WTTC 13 hsia 3a-5b).

483 WTTC 13 hsia 3a-5b.

484 WTTC 14 shang 1a-3a.

485 WTTC 14 shang 3a-5b.

486 WTTC 14 shang 12a-24b.

487 WTTC 14 shang 43a-46a.

488 WTTC 14 hsia 1a-10b.

489 WTTC 14 hsia 11a-20a.

490 LBMB 1991, 66.

491 MTH III/5, 129 "Siegel R"; see also LBMB 1991, 22.

492 LBMB 1991, 22.

493 LBMB 1991, 21.

494 LBMB 1991, 22.

495 LBMB 1991, 21.

496 This inscription in Vartula script was incised in 1811 (LBMB 1991, 23).

497 MTH III/5, 283 No 3.10; LBMB 1991, 22, 66. Note that the seal of rTa-tshag's successor reads: "gong ma'i lung gis zhwa ser gyi bstan pa 'dzin byed dpal ldan no min han gyi tham ga bkra shis dge'o/"(LBMB 1991, 23), instead.

498 LBMB 1991, 23.

599 LBMB 1991, 66.

500 MTH III/5, 132; LBMB 1991, 66.

501 HTTY 85.

502 HTTY 84.

503 HTTY 86.

504 HTTY 87.

505 HTTY 87.

506 HTTY 87.

507 HTTY 86.

508 LBMB 1991, 22f.

509 MTH III/5, 140.

510 He is perhaps identical with gYu-thog sKal-bzang chos-grags (fl. 1783-1798); see TARING 5 and PETECH 1973, 135, accordingly.

511 Treasurer of('On) rGyal-sras V. sKal-bzang thub-bstan 'jigs-med rgya-mtsho (1743-1811); for some data concerning his life see KPDZ 287 und GCMD 410f.

512 He is identical with either rDo-ring bsTan-'dzin dpal-'byor (1760-after 1810, see PETECH 1973, 59) or his son, Mi-'gyur bsod-nams dpal-'byor (1784-1834, see PETECH 1973, 59-60, and DRNT passim).


514 For details on this office see SGLG 181-183.

515 For a history of the family see PETECH 1973, 144-153.

516 For a history of this family see PETECH 1973, 95-97.

517 For very few notes about his life se PETECH 1973, 35.

518 For a biographical sketch see PETECH 1973, 81f.

519 This is perhaps identical with Bar-zhib bKra-shis chos-sdings (DL11, 491).

520 PETECH 1973, 43.

521 PETECH 1973, 131.

522 PETECH 1973, 135.

523 PETECH 1973, 67-69.

524 KPDZ 284-286.

525 GDCB 318; HTTT 65.

526 PSBR 59ff.; KDL 54

527 PSBR 61f.

528 PSBR 61f.

529 PSBR 64. I wonder whether there ever existed a "Rung-khang chung-ngu".

530 PSBR 59.

531 PSBR 59.

532 PSBR 59.

533 PSBR 59.

534 PSBR 59.

535 PSBR 59.

536 PSBR 59.

537 HTTT 65; GDCB=PSBR 55f.

538 MGLG 141.

539 WYLIE 1962, 179 n. 585.

540 HTTT 63, 65; HTTM 15; VERHUFEN 134.

541 Probably not identical with dBang-sger, rGya-mda', as listed in HTTM 484.

542 PSBR 56f.

543 PSBR 56f.

544 PSBR 58.

545 PSBR 56f.

546 rDzing-kha is the name of a monastery in the vicinity (GDCB 317); it is also the name of a village in the 'Phyongs-rgyas District in lHo-kha (HTTM 550).

547 PSBR 56f.

548 PSBR 56f.; GDCB 321 n. 17.

549 GDCB 321.

550 PSBR 58.

551 PSBR 58.

552 PSBR 58.

553 PSBR 56f.

554 PSBR 58.

555 PSBR 56f.

556 PSBR 56f.

557 PSBR 58.

558 PSBR 56f.

559 PSBR 58.

560 PSBR 58.

561 PSBR 58.

562 PSBR 56f.

563 PSBR 58.

564 PSBR 56f.

565 PSBR 56f.

566 PSBR 58.

567 PSBR 58.

568 PSBR 58.

569 PSBR 56f.

570 PSBR 58.

571 PSBR 58.

572 PSBR 56f.

573 PSBR 58.

574 PSBR 58.

575 PSBR 58.

576 PSBR 58.

577 Note that in the middle of the eighteenth century a certain Yul-steng dza-sag Byams-pa ye-shes appears to have been a high-ranking monk official of the monastery of dPa'-shod (PSBR 62f.).

578 PSBR 56f.